2 Formerly grouped as one kingdom known as the Monerans. 6 KingdomsFormerly grouped as one kingdom known as the Monerans.ArchaebacteriaEubacteriaProtistaFungiPlantaeAnimaliaThese four kingdomsare believed to haveevolved from theArchaebacteria.
3 Cell Types Prokaryotes Eukaryotes No nucleusNo membrane-bound organellesFound only in Archaebacteria and Eubacteria KingdomsHas nucleusMany organellesIncludes Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia Kingdoms
4 Types of Nutrition Autotrophs: (able to make own food) 1.) Photosynthetic -organism that uses energy from the sun to make its own food2.) Chemosynthetic -simple nonliving chemical nutrients such as H2S, sulfur, and iron are consumed and made into living tissue; makes its own foodHeterotrophs: (unable to make own food)1.) Ingestion: organism eats other organisms or their organic byproducts2.) Absorption: produces enzymes that break down food particles outside the body, then absorb the digested molecules
5 Kingdom Archaebacteria Cell Type: prokaryotes (original life form on earth; gave rise to eukaryotes)Body Forms: unicellularCell Structure:Cell WallGenetic MaterialNO OrganellesNutrition: autotrophs or heterotrophsHabitat: extreme environments such as deep sea volcanic vents, hot springs
6 Kingdom Archaebacteria Other Important Information: fewer than 100 species are believed to existSketches of Cellular Examples:Examples: methanic bacteria, halophile bacteria, anaerobic bacteria
7 Kingdom EubacteriaCell Type: Prokaryotes - considered the “true bacteria”Body Forms: unicellularCell Structure:Cell WallGenetic MaterialNO OrganellesNutrition: photosynthetic and chemosynthetic autotrophs;heterotrophic forms tooHabitat: Common environments – land, water and air; live in and on organisms
8 Kingdom EubacteriaOther Important Information: extremely diverse – more than 5000 species exist. Ecologically important as decomposers. Symbiotic relationships with humans – mutualistic in gut; parasitic when they cause disease.Sketches of Cellular Examples:Examples: Anthrax, E. coli, Salmonella, Gonorrhea
9 Kingdom Protista Cell Type: Eukaryotes Body Forms: mostly unicellular, some multicellular, some colonialCell Structure:Cell WallNucleusMembrane-bound OrganellesChloroplastsNutrition: photosynthetic autotrophs and heterotrophs that use ingestion or absorptionHabitat: freshwater and ocean water, in and on organisms
10 Kingdom ProtistaOther Important Information: the “catch-all kingdom”; range from microscopic to 150 feet long in size; some are animal-like, some are plant-like; some cause disease.Sketches of Cellular Examples:Examples: kelp, algae, slime mold, Paramecium, Amoeba, Euglena, diatoms
11 Kingdom Fungi Cell Type: Eukaryotes Body Forms: some unicellular, most multicellularCell Structure:Cell Wall made of chitinNucleus (sometimes more then 1)Organelles (no chloroplasts)Opening between adjacent cellsNutrition: heterotrophic (absorption)Habitat: most are terrestrial, some live on or in organisms
12 Kingdom FungiOther Important Information: Ecological importance as decomposers. Many have relationships with other organisms. In humans-parasitic fungus cause athlete’s foot and ringworm. Mutualistic examples too: mychorrizae in plants and lichens with algae.Sketches of Cellular Examples:Examples: bread mold, yeast, mushrooms, mildew, mold, truffles
13 Kingdom Plantae Cell Type: Eukaryotes Body Forms: multicellular Cell Structure:NucleusOrganellesChloroplastsCell wall made of celluloseLarge Central VacuolesNutrition: photosynthetic autotrophsHabitat: mostly terrestrial
14 Kingdom PlantaeOther Important Information: plants are the base of terrestrial food chains; more than 262,000 species existSketches of Cellular Examples:Examples: moss, ferns, pine trees, oak trees, shrubs, flowers, grass
15 Kingdom Animalia Cell Type: Eukaryotes Body Forms: multicellular Cell Structure:NucleusOrganellesNO chloroplastNO cell wallNutrition: heterotrophicHabitat: land, water, air
16 Kingdom AnimaliaOther Important Information: the most diverse of all kingdoms in appearance; most are motile (they can move)Sketches of Cellular ExamplesExamples: sponges, worms, snails, insects (ants, grasshoppers), birds, snake, fish, elephant, human
Taxonomy SC.912.L.15.6 Discuss distinguishing characteristics of the domains and kingdoms of living organisms. To the Teacher: Source:http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/levin/0471697435/chap_tut/chaps/chapter06-02.html.