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Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 2.21 – 2.40 Seventh Edition Elaine.

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Presentation on theme: "Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 2.21 – 2.40 Seventh Edition Elaine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slides 2.21 – 2.40 Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb Chapter 2 Basic Chemistry Lecture Slides in PowerPoint by Jerry L. Cook

2 Biochemistry: Essentials for Life Slide 2.21 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Organic compounds Contain carbon Most are covalently bonded Example: C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose) Inorganic compounds Lack carbon Tend to be simpler compounds Example: H 2 O (water)

3 Important Inorganic Compounds Slide 2.22 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Water Most abundant inorganic compounds Vital properties High heat capacity Polarity/solvent properties Chemical reactivity Cushioning

4 Important Inorganic Compounds Slide 2.23 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Salts Easily dissociate into ions in the presence of water Vital to many body functions Include electrolytes which conduct electrical currents

5 Important Inorganic Compounds Slide 2.24 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Acids Can release detectable hydrogen ions Bases Proton acceptors Neutralization reaction Acids and bases react to form water and a salt

6 pH Slide 2.25 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Measures relative concentration of hydrogen ions pH 7 = neutral pH below 7 = acidic pH above 7 = basic Buffers Chemicals that can regulate pH change Figure 2.11

7 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.26 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carbohydrates Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Include sugars and starches Classified according to size Monosaccharides – simple sugars Disaccharides – two simple sugars joined by dehydration synthesis Polysaccharides – long branching chains of linked simple sugars

8 Carbohydrates Slide 2.27 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2.12a, b

9 Carbohydrates Slide 2.28 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2.12c

10 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.29 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lipids Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Carbon and hydrogen outnumber oxygen Insoluble in water

11 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.30a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Common lipids in the human body Neutral fats (triglycerides) Found in fat deposits Composed of fatty acids and glycerol Source of stored energy

12 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.30b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Common lipids in the human body (continued) Phospholipids Form cell membranes Steroids Include cholesterol, bile salts, vitamin D, and some hormones

13 Slide 2.31 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2.14a, b Lipids

14 Slide 2.32 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2.14c Cholesterol

15 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.33a Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Proteins Made of amino acids Contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur

16 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.33b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Account for over half of the body’s organic matter Provides for construction materials for body tissues Plays a vital role in cell function Act as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies

17 Enzymes Slide 2.34 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Act as biological catalysts Increase the rate of chemical reactions Figure 2.16

18 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.35 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nucleic Acids Provide blueprint of life Nucleotide bases A = Adenine G = Guanine C = Cytosine T = Thymine U = Uracil Make DNA and RNA

19 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.36 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Organized by complimentary bases to form double helix Replicates before cell division Provides instruction for every protein in the body Figure 2.17c

20 Important Organic Compounds Slide 2.37 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Chemical energy used by all cells Energy is released by breaking high energy phosphate bond ATP is replenished by oxidation of food fuels

21 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Slide 2.38 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2.18a

22 How ATP Drives Cellular Work Slide 2.39 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2.19


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