Presentation on theme: "Intro to Computers Technology Applications Posted by Decatur Middle School with permission by North Ridge Middle School - BISD Use the information in this."— Presentation transcript:
Intro to Computers Technology Applications Posted by Decatur Middle School with permission by North Ridge Middle School - BISD Use the information in this presentation to fill out the worksheet you are given.
What is a Computer? A computer is a machine that: receives input (data) performs processing produces output (information) storage (saves for later use) Without any one of these the computer would be worthless
Examples of Input, Processing & Output Text typed on keyboard Formatting & preparation for printing Letter, book report, memo, story Text & numbers typed on keyboard Calculations performed in spreadsheet Banking record, budget, grade book Pictures scanned into computer Cropping, formatting, enhancing in preparation for printing Photos, collage, poster InputProcessingOutput
Disks, Disk Drives and Permanent Storage No work on the computer is stored permanently unless it is saved from the computer’s memory to a diskette, hard drive or some other storage device. Disk drives are identified by letter: The diskette drive is letter A The hard drive is usually letter C
Other Storage Devices CD’s Flash Drive (Thumb Drive) Removable Media
Personal Computer Hardware Hardware refers to the pieces of equipment that make up the computer system. Examples of computer hardware components: Drives, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, Printer, Bus expansion slots & cards, CPU and Memory Chips, Speakers
Hardware The motherboard is the largest circuit board in the PC. It contains millions of electronic circuits on a chip of silicon. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is a chip on the Motherboard that performs mathematical calculations and logic functions. The CPU is often called the “brain” of the computer
Hardware (continued) RAM (Random Access Memory) is temporary memory where programs and data are while they are being used. When a document is opened it is loaded into RAM. When you save a document the CPU copies the document that is in RAM to permanent storage. When the power is turned off the information in RAM is lost. The storage capacity of RAM is measured in megabytes.
Hardware (continued) Some hardware components are primarily input devices and some are primarily output devices. The following is a list of 10 common hardware components and whether they are input devices, output devices or both.
Input and Output Devices A. Monitor: an output device that displays input and the results of processing. B. Mouse: an input device that controls a pointer on the monitor. You can click the mouse to give the computer input. C. Keyboard: an input device with letters, numbers, symbols and special keys used to input data and type text.
Input and Output Devices ( cont’d ) D. Hard disk (Hard drive): permanent storage device usually installed in the system unit. It can be used to receive input and produce output. E. Diskette Drive: a drive that can read a removable disk. It can be used to receive input and produce output. F. CD-ROM: (Compact Disk – Read Only Memory) a disk that can be used to input data into the computer
Input and Output Devices ( cont’d ) G. CD-RW (Compact Disk – Read/Write): a disk that can be used to input data (read) or output or store data (write). H. Modem: (Modulate/Demodulate) a piece of hardware that converts an incoming signal so the computer can read it (input) and converts an outgoing signal so it can be sent over phone lines (output).
Input and Output Devices ( cont’d ) I. Printers – one of most common output devices. Produces paper copy (hard copy) of output. J. Scanners – input device which lets you create digital files from pictures, drawings or text.
Types of Printers A. Laser – printers which use copier-like technology to spread patterns of toner and make it stick to the paper with heat. B. Inkjet – printers that spray ink onto paper to produce the output. C. Plotters – printers that use needles to draw on paper. They are frequently used by engineers to produce schematic drawings.
Controlling Windows Via the Keyboard – used to enter data and to issue commands to the computer. Keys on the Keyboard: Function Keys: the twelve keys located across the top of the keyboard that are labeled F1-F12. They perform specific tasks depending on the software you are using. Escape Key: used to back out or interrupt a task.
Controlling Windows Via the Mouse – a small, hand-held device that is used to control the pointer on the screen. There are Seven Main Mouse Actions: Point Click Right-click Double-click Drag Right-drag Scroll
Bits and Bytes – more click here more click here Personal computers operate through a number of on/of switches called binary digits or bits. Everything that a computer does is accomplished by switches that are either turned on or off. A string of 8 bits is equal to one byte. Each byte is translated by the computer into a letter or action. A 0 represents a switch that is turned off and a 1 represents a switch that is turned on.
File Size and Storage Capacity Computers work with digital information – everything is converted to 0’s and 1’s Each 0 or 1 is a bit A byte is the most common measurement of storage. 1 byte = 8 bits 1 kilobyte =1 thousand bytes 1 megabyte=1 million bytes 1 gigabyte=1 billion bytes 1 terabyte= 1 trillion bytes
Processor Speed The speed of a computer is measured in gigahertz or megahertz. Megahertz – millions of cycles per second Gigahertz – billions of cycles per second
Software Software refers to the instructions that allow a computer to run. There are two categories of software: Operating System – allows the computer to boot; controls and manages the computer by translating instructions into a language the computer can understand. In our lab we have Windows XP Application Software – software that allows you to perform specific tasks such as write a letter, play a game or create a spreadsheet.
Types of Computer Supercomputer (largest in size) Mainframe (Replaced by Server) Microcomputer (Personal Computer) PC Laptop Handheld
Supercomputer Used primarily by military and scientific agencies: weather forecasting, simulations (wind tunnel, nuclear detonation) Used when there is a need for high speed and intensive calculation List of top 500 supercomputers (11-2007) List of top 500 supercomputers
Servers (Mainframe) Used primarily by businesses: credit card companies, bank accounts, insurance, airline reservations) Used when the computations are simpler but there are huge amounts of data. (simpler calculations but more of them)
Servers (Network) \\summittstorage\kidsfolder \\aocserver\printername LAN and WAN Local Area Network Wide Area Network
Microcomputer Most commonly used Microcomputer is a Personal Computer or Desktop Computer. Usually single user machines Other Microcomputers include: video game consoles, laptop computers, and many types of handheld devices may all be considered examples of microcomputers
Microcomputers: Handheld Devices Handheld devices are pocket-sized computing devices that are rapidly gaining popularity as the access to information in every walk of life becomes more and more mission critical. Along with mobile computing devices such as laptops and smartphones, PDAs represent the new frontier of computing as desktop computers find less and less favour among every day users.The following are typical handhelds: Smartphone Personal digital assistant Mobile phone Handheld game console
Handheld Devices Tungsten PDA Nokia Smartphone Mobile or Cell Phones Handheld Game Console
Computer Careers Computers require specially trained personnel to keep them running efficiently. The following are some computer related careers: Application Programmers: people who ensure that the programs an organization needs are created, maintained and improved.
Computer Careers (cont’d) Network Administrator: people who specialize in making sure that a company’s network operates efficiently. Help Desk Professionals: people who are trained to provide help to users of applications. Web site designers and programmers: people who decide what Web pages should look like and write the code to create them.