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NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry  Nuclear chemistry is the study of the structure of and the they undergo.

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Presentation on theme: "NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry  Nuclear chemistry is the study of the structure of and the they undergo."— Presentation transcript:

1 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

2 Introduction to Nuclear Chemistry  Nuclear chemistry is the study of the structure of and the they undergo.

3 Chemical vs. Nuclear Reactions Chemical ReactionsNuclear Reactions Occur when bonds are broken Occur when nuclei emit particles and/or rays

4 Chemical vs. Nuclear Reactions Chemical ReactionsNuclear Reactions Occur when bonds are brokenOccur when nuclei emit particles and/or rays Atoms remain unchanged, although they may be rearranged Atoms often converted into atoms of another element

5 Chemical vs. Nuclear Reactions Chemical ReactionsNuclear Reactions Occur when bonds are brokenOccur when nuclei emit particles and/or rays Atoms remain unchanged, although they may be rearranged Atoms often converted into atoms of another element Involve only valence electrons May involve protons, neutrons, and electrons

6 Chemical vs. Nuclear Reactions Chemical ReactionsNuclear Reactions Occur when bonds are brokenOccur when nuclei emit particles and/or rays Atoms remain unchanged, although they may be rearranged Atoms often converted into atoms of another element Involve only valence electronsMay involve protons, neutrons, and electrons Associated with small energy changes Associated with large energy changes

7 Chemical vs. Nuclear Reactions Chemical ReactionsNuclear Reactions Occur when bonds are brokenOccur when nuclei emit particles and/or rays Atoms remain unchanged, although they may be rearranged Atoms often converted into atoms of another element Involve only valence electronsMay involve protons, neutrons, and electrons Associated with small energy changesAssociated with large energy changes Reaction rate influenced by temperature, particle size, concentration, etc. Reaction rate is not influenced by temperature, particle size, concentration, etc.

8 The Discovery of Radioactivity (1895 – 1898):  found that invisible rays were emitted when electrons bombarded the surface of certain materials.  Becquerel accidently discovered that phosphorescent salts produced spontaneous emissions that darkened photographic plates

9 Antoine Henri Becquierel

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11 Radioactive decay Discovered by Antoine Henri Becquerel in 1896 He saw that photographic plates developed bright spots when exposed to uranium metals

12 Radioactive Decay – nucleus decays spontaneously giving off an energetic particle

13 The Discovery of Radioactivity (1895 – 1898):  isolated the components ( atoms) emitting the rays  – process by which particles give off  – the penetrating rays and particles by a radioactive source

14 The Discovery of Radioactivity (1895 – 1898):  identified 2 new elements, and on the basis of their radioactivity  These findings Dalton’s theory of indivisible atoms.

15 Marie Sklodowska Curie with her daughter, Irene.

16 The Discovery of Radioactivity (1895 – 1898):  – atoms of the element with different numbers of  – isotopes of atoms with nuclei (too / neutrons)  – when unstable nuclei energy by emitting to attain more atomic configurations ( process)

17 Alpha radiation  Composition – Alpha particles, same as helium nuclei  Symbol – Helium nuclei, He, α  Charge – 2+  Mass (amu) – 4  Approximate energy – 5 MeV  Penetrating power – low (0.05 mm body tissue)  Shielding – paper, clothing 4 2

18 Beta radiation  Composition – Beta particles, same as an electron  Symbol – e -, β  Charge – 1-  Mass (amu) – 1/1837 (practically 0)  Approximate energy – 0.05 – 1 MeV  Penetrating power – moderate (4 mm body tissue)  Shielding – metal foil

19 Gamma radiation  Composition – High-energy electromagnetic radiation  Symbol – γ  Charge – 0  Mass (amu) – 0  Approximate energy – 1 MeV  Penetrating power – high (penetrates body easily)  Shielding – lead, concrete

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22 Ionizing power and penetrating power: an analogy.

23 Types of radioactive decay  alpha particle emission  beta emission  positron emission  electron capture  gamma emission

24 Alpha emission

25 Beta Particle emisson

26 Review Type of Radioactive Decay Particle Emitted Change in Mass # Change in Atomic # Alpha α He -4-2 Beta β e 0+1 Gamma γ

27 Chemical Symbols  A chemical symbol looks like…  To find the number of, subtract the from the C 6 14

28 Half-Life  is the required for of a radioisotope’s nuclei to decay into its products.  For any radioisotope, # of ½ lives% Remaining 0100% 150% 225% 312.5% 46.25% % %

29 Half-Life

30  For example, suppose you have 10.0 grams of strontium – 90, which has a half life of 29 years. How much will be remaining after x number of years?  You can use a table: # of ½ livesTime (Years)Amount Remaining (g)

31 Half-Life  Or an equation!

32 Half-Life  Example 1: If gallium – 68 has a half-life of 68.3 minutes, how much of a mg sample is left after 1 half life? ________ 2 half lives? __________ 3 half lives? __________

33 Half-Life  Example 2: Iron-59 is used in medicine to diagnose blood circulation disorders. The half-life of iron-59 is 44.5 days. How much of a mg sample will remain after days? ______________

34 Nuclear Fission  - of a nucleus  - Very heavy nucleus is split into approximately fragments  - reaction releases several neutrons which more nuclei  - If controlled, energy is released (like in ) Reaction control depends on reducing the of the neutrons (increases the reaction rate) and extra neutrons ( creases the reaction rate).

35 Nuclear Fission  - 1 st controlled nuclear reaction in December st uncontrolled nuclear explosion occurred July  - Examples – atomic bomb, current nuclear power plants

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37 Cooling towers of a nuclear power plant. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Courtesy David Bartruff/Corbis Images

38 Construction of a tunnel that will be used for burial of radioactive wastes deep within Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

39 Disposal of radioactive wastes by burial in a shallow pit.

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41 Nuclear Fusion  - of a nuclei  - Two nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus  - Does not occur under standard conditions ( repels )  - Advantages compared to fission -,  - Disadvantages - requires amount of energy to, difficult to  - Examples – energy output of stars, hydrogen bomb, future nuclear power plants

42 Applications Medicine Chemotherapy Power pacemakers Diagnostic tracers Agriculture Irradiate food Pesticide Energy Fission Fusion

43 X-ray examination of luggage at a security station.

44 An image of a thyroid gland obtained through the use of radioactive iodine

45 Images of human lungs obtained from a γ -ray scan.

46 A cancer patient receiving radiation therapy.


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