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Machining Centers General Manufacturing Processes Engr.-20.2710 Instructor - Sam Chiappone.

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Presentation on theme: "Machining Centers General Manufacturing Processes Engr.-20.2710 Instructor - Sam Chiappone."— Presentation transcript:

1 Machining Centers General Manufacturing Processes Engr.-20.2710 Instructor - Sam Chiappone

2 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute History l 1955 - John Parsons and US Air Force define a need to develop a machine tool capable of machining complex and close tolerance aircraft parts with the same quality time after time (repeatability). MIT is the subcontractor and builds the machine for the project.

3 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute History: Continued l 1959 - MIT announces Automatic Programmed Tools (APT) programming language l 1960 - Direct Numerical Control (DNC). This eliminates paper tape punch programs and allows programmers to send files directly to machine tools

4 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute History: Continued l 1968 - Kearney & Trecker machine tool builders market first machining center l 1970s - CNC machine tools & Distributed Numerical Control l 1980s - Graphics based CAM systems introduced. Unix and PC based systems available

5 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute History: Continued l 1990s - Price drop in CNC technology l 1997 - PC- Windows/NT based Open Modular Architecture Control (OMAC) systems introduced to replace firmware controllers.

6 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Control Systems l Open-Loop Control –Stepper motor system –Current pulses sent from control unit to motor –Each pulse results in a finite amount of revolution of the motor 001 is possible

7 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Control Systems l Open-Loop Limitations –Control unit assumes desired position is achieved –No positioning compensation –Typically, a lower torque motor l Open-Loop Advantages –Less complex, Less costly, and lower maintenance costs

8 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Control Systems l Closed-Loop Control –Variable DC motors - Servos –Positioning sensors -Resolvers »Feedback to control unit »Position information compared to target location »Location errors corrected

9 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Control Systems l Closed-Loop Advantages –DC motors have the ability to reverse instantly to adjust for position error –Error compensation allows for greater positional accuracy (.0001) –DC motors have higher torque ranges vs.. stepper motors l Closed-loop limitations –Cost

10 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Three Basic Categories of Motion Systems l Point to Point - No contouring capability l Straight cut control - one axis motion at a time is controlled for machining l Contouring - multiple axiss controlled simultaneously

11 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Three Basic Categories of Motion Systems

12 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute CNC vs. NC Machine Tools l Computer Numerical Control (CNC) - A numerical control system in which the data handling, control sequences, and response to input is determined by an on-board computer system at the machine tool.

13 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute CNC l Advantages –Increased Program storage capability at the machine tool –Program editing at the machine tool –Control systems upgrades possible –Option -resident CAM system at machine tool –Tool path verification

14 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute NC l Numerical Control (NC) - A control system which primarily processes numeric input. Limited programming capability at the machine tool. Limited logic beyond direct input. These types of systems are referred to as hardwire controls and were popular from the 1950s to 1970s.

15 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Machining Centers l A machining center can be defined as a machine tool capable of: –Multiple operation and processes in a single set-up utilizing multiple axis –Typically has an automatic mechanism to change tools

16 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Machining Centers –Machine motion is programmable –Servo motors drive feed mechanisms for tool axiss –Positioning feedback is provided by resolvers to the control system

17 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Machining Centers l Example - A turning center capable of OD turning, external treading, cross-hole drilling, engraving, and milling. All in machining is accomplished in one set-up. Machine may have multiple spindles.

18 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Machining Centers

19 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Programming Methods l Automatically Programmed Tools (APT) –A text based system in which a programmer defines a series of lines, arcs, and points which define the overall part geometry locations. These features are then used to generate a cutter location (CL) file.

20 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Programming Methods-APT –Developed as a joint effort between the aerospace industry, MIT, and the US Airforce –Still used today and accounts for about 5 -10% of all programming in the defense and aerospace industries

21 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Programming Methods-APT –Requires excellent 3D visualization skills –Capable of generating machine code for complicated part programs »5 axis machine tools

22 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Programming Methods-APT l Part definition l P1=Point/12,20,0 l C1=Circle/Center,P1,Radius,3 l LN1=Line/C1. ATANGL,90 l Cutter Commands l TLRT,GORT/LN1.TANTO,C1 l GOFWD/C1,TANTO,L5

23 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Programming Methods-CAM l Computer Aided Machining (CAM) Systems –Graphic representation of the part –PC based –Integrated CAD/CAM functionality –Some built-in expertise l Speed & feed data based on material and tool specifications

24 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Programming Methods-CAM –Tool & material libraries –Tool path simulation –Tool path editing –Tool path optimization –Cut time calculations for cost estimating

25 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Programming Methods-CAM –Import / export capabilities to other systems »Examples: l Drawing Exchange Format (DXF) l Initial Graphics Exchange Standard (IGES)

26 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute The Process CAD to NC File l Start with graphic representation of part –Direct input –Import from external system »Example DXF / IGES –2D or 3D scan »Model or Blueprint (At this point you have a graphics file of your geometry)

27 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute The Process CAD to NC File l Define cutter path by selecting geometry –Contours –Pockets –Hole patterns –Surfaces –Volume to be removed (At this point the system knows what you want to cut)

28 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute The Process CAD to NC File l Define cut parameters –Tool information »Type, Rpm, Feed –Cut method »Example - Pocket mill zig-zag, spiral, inside-out »Rough and finish parameters (At this point the system knows how you want to cut the part)

29 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute The Process CAD to NC File l Execute cutter simulation –Visual representation of cutter motion l Modify / delete cutter sequences (At this point the system has a generic cutter location (CL) file of the cut paths)

30 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute The Process CAD to NC File l Post Processing –CL file to machine specific NC code l Filters CL information and formats it into NC code based on machine specific parameters –Work envelope –Limits - feed rates, tool changer, rpms, etc. –G & M function capabilities

31 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Output: NC Code l Numerical Control (NC) Language –A series of commands which direct the cutter motion and support systems of the machine tool.

32 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Output: NC Code l G-Codes (G00, G1, G02, G81) l Coordinate data (X,Y,Z) l Feed Function (F) l Miscellaneous functions (M13) l N - Program sequence number l T - Tool call l S - Spindle command

33 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Output: NC Code l NC Program Example –N01G90 G80 –N03 GOO T12 M06 –N05 GOO X0 Y0 Z.1 F10 S2500 M13 –N07 G1Z-.5 –N09 G02 X-10. I0J0F20 –N13 X0Y10 –N17 X10Y0 –N19 X0Y-10 –N21 X-10Y0 –N23 M2

34 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Output: NC Code - Canned Cycles

35 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute CAD to NC Code

36 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Advantages of CNC Machine Tools l Ease of part duplication l Flexibility l Repeatability l Quality control through process control

37 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Advantages of CNC Machine Tools l Accommodates simple to complex parts geometry l Improved part aesthetics l Increased productivity l Technology costs are decreasing

38 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Advantages of CNC Machine Tools l Reduced set-up time l Reduced lead times l Reduced inventory l Better machine utilization l Job advancement opportunities

39 GMP-20.271 Chiappone Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Advantages of CNC Machine Tools l CNC machine tools are more rigid than conventional machine tools –$$$- Climb milling requires about 10 - 15 % less horsepower vs. conventional cutting, but requires a ridged machine tool with no backlash –Increased Rpms and feeds


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