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HUMAN CENTERED DESIGN February 16, Wednesday: Initiation

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1 HUMAN CENTERED DESIGN February 16, Wednesday: Initiation
The completed work will be assessed on all IB criteria and should reflect the 30 periods lesson time allocated for design and making. The write up should take place at home. February 16, Wednesday: Initiation March 07, Monday: First draft due March 21, Monday: Second draft due April 11, Monday: Final draft due May 16, Monday: Final copy due “Students having failed to produce IA coursework will receive no grade in that subject.”

2 Guidline for processing information: All data must be referenced!
Suggested links: materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/DT.html What is needed? What for/why? Data collected Data presented: Table/Graph/Chart All data must be referenced! Data interpreted: Selection & Justification

3 DT Project: Working with clients- Design Context
IA You MUST cover the assessment criteria: planning, research, development, evaluation (Guide pp 25-27) IA There seems to be a perceived need for a student lounge/study area for IB students. The space in discussion is the recess part of the aula with the possibility of using the garden. Since this space is often used for examinations and meetings, all furniture designs must be easy to remove and to store in the garden without much visual impact. They must also be easy to set up again in their original configuration. Your group has been approached to produce a concept, or individually to design one product each for a new lounge which must be produced as a scale model for evaluation purposes.

4 Design Situation: 2+ pages Textbook: pp and ; Handouts Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. Introduce the project with clear situation- see first slide; you may refer to other institutions. Conduct initial research into this particular problem to collect evidence of the need and its importance: Photos of the existing situation with relevant notes Develop and use an instrument to ask students (min 5 points and 10 students). Present graphically and discuss the collected data. Include other relevant points… Brainstorm all possibilities and describe why you have chosen a particular product / concept to design. Justify your selection, 2.2 must include: What do you need to find out? Who do you ask? What instrument will be used and why? Present the collected data in a graphical form. Refer to data as you discuss it and come to a conclusion. 3: List design possibilities in this context that you may want to explore. The design situation should present a convincing argument.

5 The brief must include:
Design Brief 1 page Textbook: and ww.technologystudent.com Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed The design brief should develop from the analysis of the situation, user needs and problems. It needs to be simple, and it should not include the solution to the problem. You should use the design brief to help plan research. The brief must include: The product type and its purpose The client or target market group The explanation of constraints The criteria for success A feasibility study of the project considering cost, time, facilities, scope, green design, life cycle analysis, ergonomics,… In addition to the previously studied topics, reference should be made to: Innovative design Green design Ergonomic considerations Design for manufacturing What is a Feasibility Study? As the name implies, a feasibility study is an analysis of the viability of an idea. The feasibility study focuses on helping answer the essential question of “should we proceed with the proposed project idea?”

6 Analysis 1 page Textbook: 43-44 and 298 – 299 www. technologystudent
Analysis 1 page Textbook: and 298 – 299 Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed BRIEF What? ANALYSIS HOW? RESEARCH Brainstorm relevant issues Produce a list with questions (MINIMUM 10) Research analysis should provide a good understanding of the problem and give relevant information about the desired: environment ergonomics aesthetic function performance requirements of the intended product materials production processes green design life cycle analysis Research and the analysis of the problem are often bound together and both activities may be carried out simultaneously, as some analysis may be necessary in order to focus some of the research, while analysis of the research will enable you to evaluate and select useful information.

7 Research plan: 1/2 page Textbook: 44-45; 298 – 299; 118-120 ww
Research plan: 1/2 page Textbook: 44-45; 298 – 299; ww.technologystudent.com www Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. There MUST be correlation between design context -design brief – analysis – initial specifications – research plan – research – generating ideas The table below is a generic example Produce a table listing the information or data to be gathered that is relevant to the initial specifications. Issues for investigations Primary sources Secondary sources Timeline 1. Available space Sketch Photo School plan 2. Ergonomics Body measurement PeopleSize 2008 Pro: sofware 3. Materials laboratory Mat-Proc: software 4. Joining techniques 5. Existing products 6. Green design objectives

8 MUST include references!!!
Research - Data collection 6+ pp Textbook: 43-44; 298 – 299; 118 – 120 ww.technologystudent.com Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. The research must provide answers to the questions raised during the analysis. It must include both quantitative and qualitative data. The information should be interpreted – no copy and paste! Research the available space (primary data): Measure it Take photographs and explain them in your report: light, direction of movement Research exiting designs for inspiration (min4) Include drawings or photographs State the qualities of the selected designs: Aesthetics Ergonomics Function Materials Making Research ergonomics and anthropometrics Describe target user Which age group Which percentile - justify Include diagram of user with relevant dimensions (anthropometrics) Produce a table with the relevant sizes (primary & secondary data) Other ergonomic considerations??? Data collected MUST include references!!! Data presented: Table/Graph/Chart Data interpreted: Selection & Justification

9 Anthropometrics- PeopleSize2008
SET PERCENTILE 4. Record /export data from output dialog 3. Click on triangles to select the dimension 2. Click on a relevant Icon 1. Select your User Group

10 MUST include references!
Research - Data collection continued Textbook: 43-44; 298 – 299; 118 – Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. See IB properties/materials index – next slide Use the charts from PCSTART or the web to select materials, processes, and green design issues Additional references for materials and manufacturing: All research should be evaluated and conclusions drawn in the form of bullet points. Research green design issues State the reasons and objectives for green design in your project Justify the application of the above mentioned green design objectives in your project Materials selection Identify the desired qualities/properties of the required materials Select the materials using the materials charts Justify the selection Research possible manufacturing techniques Shaping Joining RESEARCH SUMMARY – what is the useful information and why !!! MUST include references! BRIEF What? ANALYSIS HOW? RESEARCH

11 IB properties/materials matrix
Timber Metals Ceramics Plastics Textile Fibers Food Composites Physical Properties Density low high medium varies Electrical resistivity very low very high Thermal conductivity Thermal expansivity low - very high Hardness medium-v. high v. high low-medium Mechanical Properties Tensile Strength Stiffness Toughness v. low

12 Materials selection - example
For a chair: Pine or Oak - relatively strong, light, not too expensive and partly recyclable – MUST PICK 2 or more Collect data from software: design issues, processes, environmental issues.

13 A design Specification is detailed information that guides a designer’s thinking about what is to be designed. It is used to help generate, test and evaluate ideas and to help develop a manufacturing specification. A specification is a list of objectives or requirements of what a product must do and what it must be like. It provides the criteria against which the final product will be tested. A good specification will include: Purpose: What will the product be used for? E.g. A computer game box must protect the CD or cartridge and provide a suitable image. Function: What is the products specific job? E.g. The game packet must allow the CD / cartridge to be removed easily, it must provide certain information about the game, and it must have a bar code. Performance: What performance criteria must be meet? E.g. A poster or point of sale display must be readable from a certain distance Market: What is the target market for the product? E.g.; Teenagers, children, professionals. Do these groups have any specific needs? The research section should have highlighted these. Aesthetics: What can we expect the product to look like? Do we want a modern look; should it be big or small, eye-catching or conservative? Quality Standards: What Quality Standards must be met for the product to be market successfully? E.g. Are there any relevant British or International Standards Safety: What safety considerations must be addressed in the design of this product? E.g. How much pressure should be applied to a point of sale display before it falls over?

14 Each specification should be justified.
Initial specifications: 1 page Textbook: and 298 – 299; and handout Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. You must make reference to the brief and give a detailed criteria to achieve a successful outcome. Each point should be clearly explained and justified, it should be understood that ideas and the final outcome will be assessed using this criteria. Points to consider: Purpose Function Aesthetic and performance requirements Materials, User requirements Manufacturing processes Quality and safety issues Resource and cost Green design objectives!!! The list on the left is a generic one and you should aim to develop your own list of specifications from your design brief with the help of researched data. Each specification should be justified. Aim to have ten or more specifications. Please be aware that the rest of the project will be continuously assessed against these specifications! BRIEF What? ANALYSIS HOW? RESEARCH WHY? SPECIFICATIONS

15 Generating ideas –see examples
Use a range of design strategies to generate a wide range of imaginative ideas that show evidence of ingenuity and flair: brainstorming, analogy, adaptation, morphological analysis. You should generate a range of feasible design ideas, based on the criteria set up in the design specification. You should communicate aesthetic and functional aspects of the design in 2D/3D, using appropriate design strategies that may include hand and/or computer methods. You should demonstrate the influence of research on design by adding notes to explain design thinking. You should evaluate and test design ideas against the design specification to determine their feasibility, ease of manufacture and potential. This must involve consulting a client or users in a target market group. Evaluation of ideas should result in a full justification for the design selected for development.

16 IDEAS

17 Generating ideas (6 ideas) Textbook: 47-50, 299 – 302 MUST READ FIRST ww.technologystudent.com Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed The ideas should be generated through analogy, adaptation, morphological analysis. Ideas should be expressed free hand drawing, CAD, and physical modeling. You must use a wide range of techniques to generate a wide range of possible solutions that solve your Design Brief: Use a variety of methods/sources – may include modelling. Start ideas with lose sketches then work through to clearer drawings Annotation referring to research Annotation referring to materials choice and joining techniques Annotation referring to possible manufacturing techniques Evaluation of each design against the specification - preferably a table – including client feedback Justification of the selected design considering client feedback

18 Evaluation of design ideas against the design specifications –EXAMPLE-
1 2 Idea 3 Idea 4 Idea 5 Idea 6 Function and Purpose 3 Ergonomics Aesthetics & Characteristics Materials Client feedback Justified selection of one of the ideas for further development.

19 Developing the chosen solution
Develop, model and refine design proposals, using feedback to help make decisions You should develop and refine your design proposals using 2D/3D-modelling techniques in a range of appropriate materials to test ideas. You should identify and justify design proposals in terms of function, appearance, performance of proposed components / materials / systems and sub-systems. Demonstrate a wide variety of communication skills, including ICT for designing, modelling and communicating You should use appropriate communication for 2D modelling by hand/CAD, i.e. drawing, sketching, flowcharts, pictorial views, orthographic, schematics’ and 3D modelling and prototyping, i.e. using card, kits, CAD Demonstrate understanding of a range of materials / components /systems. You should demonstrate an understanding of how the working characteristics of materials can be exploited to achieve a product with specific properties. Evaluate design proposals against specification criteria, testing/or accuracy, quality, and ease of manufacture. You should evaluate and test the final design proposal against the design specification to judge the quality of design, accuracy and ease of manufacture and how it meets market and user requirements. The evaluation may involve testing market potential by consulting with a client or users in a target market group.

20 Development

21 DEVELOPMENT

22 Sketches (2D modelling) clearly showing the development
Developing the chosen solution 3+p Textbook: and 299 – 302 MUST READ FIRST Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed THERE MUST BE EVIDENCE of appropriate testing and trialing resulting in reasoned decisions about form, patterns, materials, construction / production methods and other items. As you develop, model and refine your idea there must be clear evidence of: Sketches (2D modelling) clearly showing the development Annotate the materials used for each component. Produce detailed drawing for joining techniques and explain them. CAD modelling (preferably Pro Desktop) Solid model Rendered image with the right materials and colours- Pro Desktop Album Orthographic drawings in Pro Desktop Engineering drawing with DIMENSIONS Photographs of physical modelling with annotations – if appropriate Evaluate the design against specification and in consultation with the client.

23 Example of CAD process ProDesktop 2D Design Export File as ‘DXF’
Import ‘DXF’ file ‘Engineering Drawing’ ‘Album’ Output to CAM

24 (ENGINEERING DRAWING) Orthographic Projection
Solid Model (ENGINEERING DRAWING) Orthographic Projection Rendered Image (ALBUM)

25 DATA MUST BE INTERPRETED
Sustainability analysis for optimization – see handout sustainable-design-mug Use SolidWorks to compare the environmental impact of two or more materials and select: Material Manufacturing process DATA MUST BE INTERPRETED

26 You should write at least 10 statements.
Final Design Specifications 1p Textbook: and 298 – 299; and handout ww.technologystudent.com Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. Your development should result in a clearly defined design specification. You should write at least 10 statements. Begin the specification with the following sentence: To design and manufacture an effective (YOUR PRODUCT) that will appeal to the target audience and be a safe product to use, I must design using the following criteria: Functions explained in details Specific material (s) justified Specific sizes justified Which green design issues and why Each point should be clearly explained and justified, it should be understood that ideas and the final outcome will be assessed using this criteria. The final specifications must include enough quantitative data so that someone would be able to produce your design without any additional help. They should be an amended list of the initial specifications with the information generated through the development.

27 Planning for production
Produce a clear production plan that details the manufacturing specification, quality and safety guidelines and realistic deadlines The illustrated solution should give details, where appropriate of construction, dimensions, materials and components. A work order should detail assembly processes, the sequence of assembly, tools, equipment, quality and safety requirements and estimated costs. Take account of time and resource management, when planning manufacture You are expected to provide estimates for time allowance for each operation stated Demonstrate high level making skills, precision and attention to detail in the manufacture of high quality products You are expected to provide evidence of high level making skills that make the best use of available components and materials and they should use a range of tools and equipment with accuracy, confidence and skill. You need to understand that making high quality products depends on planning quality into the design and manufacturing process.

28 Orthographic Projection labelling the parts
Planning for production 3+p Textbook: 54-57, MUST READ FIRST !!!! Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed A library with tool images for the production plan is available at the Plan the making of a scale prototype model of the final solution JUSTIFYING the selected materials for the prototype. Orthographic Projection labelling the parts Produce a CUTTING LIST with part numbers corresponding with the numbers from the drawing Flow chart using standardized symbols to represent the main STAGES OF PRODUCTION including the collection of materials and components, material preparation and processes. (MIN 10) Gantt chart outlining all tasks from the PRODUCTION SCHEDULE Include a paragraph with SAFETY REQUIREMENTS and risk assessment A PRODUCTION PLAN for each of the manufacturing steps you identified in your flow/Gantt chart. Produce drawings of the parts (CAM)

29 PRODUCTION PLAN for each stage of manufacturing!!!
CUTTING LIST Part No. No. Off Length Width Thickness Material Finish 1  2  200  100  3 Plywood  Varnish 2  1  80  Plywood  40 DRAWING CUTTING LIST Start Mark out material Check sizes Cut out rectangular shape (s) for CAM Apply double sided tape Set up CAM Check set up Process CAM Task Time in minutes 20 40 60 80 100 Mark out Cut for CAM Apply tape Set up CAM Process CAM Apply varnish Assemble Check quality Evidence of manufacturing Description of the process (Mark out material) Diagram of Process FLOW CHART Material, tools and machinery required (Pencil and ruler) PRODUCTION PLAN for each stage of manufacturing!!! PRODUCTION SCHEDULE Textbook: pp20-25;

30 Conclusion and Evaluation
1 Process evaluation This part is evaluation of the design process and the degree of success in managing the whole project. This is where you discuss how you managed your project: planning, time management, meeting deadlines etc. Include, and refer to, the diagram of the Design Cycle Model DCM 2 Product evaluation The product study is looking at the factors that contribute to its success. You must always evaluate against your specification. You set yourself a list of criteria that had to be followed and now you must say whether you actually followed your initial statements for the design. It is OK to say if you have not met your criteria! Be honest! You will have more to write about and a more interesting evaluation if you didn’t meet all your criteria! 3 Recommendations Modifications that could be made to improve product performance.

31 Introduction 1 Process evaluation
Conclusion and Evaluation: PROCESS 1 page Textbook: and ; and handout Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. Introduction Explain why it is necessary to evaluate our work all of the way through a project and to make changes accordingly. 1 Process evaluation This is where you discuss how you managed your project: planning, time management, meeting deadlines etc. Include, and refer to, the diagram of the Design Cycle Model DCM. Using the following headings write brief paragraphs: Time management & Project Planning How I Performed With The Design Aspect / Portfolio How I Performed With The Practical Aspect / Manufacturing The Product How I Could Improve In The Future New Skills I Have Learnt Identifying needs Research Generating Ideas Developing solution Realising Evaluating

32 EXAMPLE: outdoor handy
Conclusion and Evaluation: PRODUCT 1 page Textbook: and ; and handout Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. EXAMPLE: outdoor handy Method: call a number under the running water in a shower 2 Product evaluation The product study is looking at the factors that contribute to its success evaluated against your specification. Testing and Evaluating List the aspects that you will be evaluating (see IB CRITERIA) Explain the method(s) you will use to test each aspect that you are evaluating (Must make use of the MANIKIN, or/and USER FEEDBACK): user trials user research expert appraisal HL: DEFINE DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Write up the tests that you carried out and centralize the data in tables / charts. Discuss the results that you found. You must have photos here of your model being tested with a manikin. Conclusion that addresses to what extent the design brief has been resolved. Yes No I could call the number.

33 3. Modifications that could be made to improve product performance:
Conclusion and Evaluation: Recommendations Textbook: and ; and handout Due: Teacher’s notes Circle the points you completed. 3. Modifications that could be made to improve product performance: Modified Specification – you should re-write any specification points that were not suitable or un-realistic from your original specification. Modifications to the Design - You must include here detailed sketches, maybe photos that you can sketch over and amend to show how your design would be modified or improved in terms of shape, proportions, dimensions, colour and additional features such as pattern etc. Further development – If you were able to spend more time on the project or had different resources, materials etc. how could your solution be developed further. All modifications should be based on the data obtained during the product evaluation against the specifications. The further development should also include recommendations for scales of production.

34 What should you have completed by now?
Design context Introduce the project with clear situation Discuss design philosophy of minimalism Research existing minimalist restaurants in detail and in style Discuss and summarise key points using pictures of the researched restaurant Describe the restaurant for which you design Design Brief the design goal the target market for the product the major constraints the criteria by which a good design proposal may be achieved Analysis What do I need to find out? Issues for investigations Primary sources Secondary sources Existing products Sketch Photo Internet Magazines Materials Investigate propertiesmaterials Egg sizes Measurements Research Existing products …….. Materials Egg Sizes ………….. Specifications Produce a table with specifications and a scale for ranking the specifications according to their perceived importance. Generating Ideas Methods: Brain storming Analogies Adaptations Annotations: Style Materials Making Strengths Production plan Evaluation of design ideas against the design specifications Developing the Solution CAD and Physical MODEL FINAL SPECIFICATIONS Evaluation Testing the quality and performance of the product against the original specification Specification I1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 Function a 1 2 3 Ergonomics


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