Presentation on theme: "HUMAN CENTERED DESIGN February 16, Wednesday: Initiation"— Presentation transcript:
1 HUMAN CENTERED DESIGN February 16, Wednesday: Initiation The completed work will be assessed on all IB criteria and should reflect the 30 periods lesson time allocated for design and making. The write up should take place at home.February 16, Wednesday: InitiationMarch 07, Monday: First draft dueMarch 21, Monday: Second draft dueApril 11, Monday: Final draft dueMay 16, Monday: Final copy due“Students having failed to produce IA coursework will receive no grade in that subject.”
2 Guidline for processing information: All data must be referenced! Suggested links:materials.eng.cam.ac.uk/mpsite/DT.htmlWhat is needed?What for/why?Data collectedData presented:Table/Graph/ChartAll data must be referenced!Data interpreted:Selection &Justification
3 DT Project: Working with clients- Design Context IAYou MUST cover the assessment criteria: planning, research, development, evaluation (Guide pp 25-27)IAThere seems to be a perceived need for a student lounge/study area for IB students.The space in discussion is the recess part of the aula with the possibility of using the garden. Since this space is often used for examinations and meetings, all furniture designs must be easy to remove and to store in the garden without much visual impact. They must also be easy to set up again in their original configuration.Your group has been approached to produce a concept, or individually to design one product each for a new lounge which must be produced as a scale model for evaluation purposes.
4 Design Situation: 2+ pages Textbook: pp and ; Handouts Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.Introduce the project with clear situation- see first slide; you may refer to other institutions.Conduct initial research into this particular problem to collect evidence of the need and its importance:Photos of the existing situation with relevant notesDevelop and use an instrument to ask students (min 5 points and 10 students). Present graphically and discuss the collected data.Include other relevant points…Brainstorm all possibilities and describe why you have chosen a particular product / concept to design. Justify your selection,2.2 must include:What do you need to find out?Who do you ask?What instrument will be used and why?Present the collected data in a graphical form.Refer to data as you discuss it and come to a conclusion.3: List design possibilities in this context that you may want to explore.The design situation should present a convincing argument.
5 The brief must include: Design Brief 1 page Textbook: and ww.technologystudent.com Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completedThe design brief should develop from the analysis of the situation, user needs and problems.It needs to be simple, and it should not include the solution to the problem.You should use the design brief to help plan research.The brief must include:The product type and its purposeThe client or target market groupThe explanation of constraintsThe criteria for successA feasibility study of the project considering cost, time, facilities, scope, green design, life cycle analysis, ergonomics,…In addition to the previously studied topics, reference should be made to:Innovative designGreen designErgonomic considerationsDesign for manufacturingWhat is a Feasibility Study?As the name implies, a feasibility study is an analysis of the viability of an idea.The feasibility study focuses on helping answer the essential question of “should we proceed with the proposed project idea?”
6 Analysis 1 page Textbook: 43-44 and 298 – 299 www. technologystudent Analysis 1 page Textbook: and 298 – Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completedBRIEFWhat?ANALYSISHOW?RESEARCHBrainstorm relevant issuesProduce a list with questions(MINIMUM 10)Research analysis should provide a good understanding of the problem and give relevant information about the desired:environmentergonomicsaestheticfunctionperformance requirements of the intended productmaterialsproduction processesgreen designlife cycle analysisResearch and the analysis of the problem are often bound together and both activities may be carried out simultaneously, as some analysis may be necessary in order to focus some of the research, while analysis of the research will enable you to evaluate and select useful information.
7 Research plan: 1/2 page Textbook: 44-45; 298 – 299; 118-120 ww Research plan: 1/2 page Textbook: 44-45; 298 – 299; ww.technologystudent.com www Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.There MUST be correlation between design context -design brief – analysis – initial specifications – research plan – research – generating ideasThe table below is a generic exampleProduce a table listing the information or data to be gathered that is relevant to the initial specifications.Issues for investigationsPrimary sourcesSecondary sourcesTimeline1. Available spaceSketchPhotoSchool plan2. ErgonomicsBody measurementPeopleSize 2008 Pro: sofware3. MaterialslaboratoryMat-Proc: software4. Joining techniques5. Existing products6. Green design objectives
8 MUST include references!!! Research - Data collection 6+ pp Textbook: 43-44; 298 – 299; 118 – 120 ww.technologystudent.com Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.The research must provide answers to the questions raised during the analysis.It must include both quantitative and qualitative data.The information should be interpreted – no copy and paste!Research the available space (primary data):Measure itTake photographs and explain them in your report: light, direction of movementResearch exiting designs for inspiration (min4)Include drawings or photographsState the qualities of the selected designs:AestheticsErgonomicsFunctionMaterialsMakingResearch ergonomics and anthropometricsDescribe target userWhich age groupWhich percentile - justifyInclude diagram of user with relevant dimensions (anthropometrics)Produce a table with the relevant sizes (primary & secondary data)Other ergonomic considerations???Data collectedMUST include references!!!Data presented:Table/Graph/ChartData interpreted:Selection &Justification
9 Anthropometrics- PeopleSize2008 SET PERCENTILE4. Record /export data from output dialog3. Click on triangles to select the dimension2. Click on a relevant Icon1. Select your User Group
10 MUST include references! Research - Data collection continued Textbook: 43-44; 298 – 299; 118 – Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.See IB properties/materials index – next slideUse the charts from PCSTART or the web to select materials, processes, and green design issuesAdditional references for materials and manufacturing:All research should be evaluated and conclusions drawn in the form of bullet points.Research green design issuesState the reasons and objectives for green design in your projectJustify the application of the above mentioned green design objectives in your projectMaterials selectionIdentify the desired qualities/properties of the required materialsSelect the materials using the materials chartsJustify the selectionResearch possible manufacturing techniquesShapingJoiningRESEARCH SUMMARY – what is the useful information and why !!!MUST include references!BRIEFWhat?ANALYSISHOW?RESEARCH
12 Materials selection - example For a chair: Pine or Oak - relatively strong, light, not too expensive and partly recyclable – MUST PICK 2 or moreCollect data from software: design issues, processes, environmental issues.
13 A design Specification is detailed information that guides a designer’s thinking about what is to be designed. It is used to help generate, test and evaluate ideas and to help develop a manufacturing specification.A specification is a list of objectives or requirements of what a product must do and what it must be like. It provides the criteria against which the final product will be tested.A good specification will include:Purpose: What will the product be used for? E.g. A computer game box must protect the CD or cartridge and provide a suitable image.Function: What is the products specific job? E.g. The game packet must allow the CD / cartridge to be removed easily, it must provide certain information about the game, and it must have a bar code.Performance: What performance criteria must be meet? E.g. A poster or point of sale display must be readable from a certain distanceMarket: What is the target market for the product? E.g.; Teenagers, children, professionals. Do these groups have any specific needs? The research section should have highlighted these.Aesthetics: What can we expect the product to look like? Do we want a modern look; should it be big or small, eye-catching or conservative?Quality Standards: What Quality Standards must be met for the product to be market successfully? E.g. Are there any relevant British or International StandardsSafety: What safety considerations must be addressed in the design of this product? E.g. How much pressure should be applied to a point of sale display before it falls over?
14 Each specification should be justified. Initial specifications: 1 page Textbook: and 298 – 299; and handout Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.You must make reference to the brief and give a detailed criteria to achieve a successful outcome.Each point should be clearly explained and justified, it should be understood that ideas and the final outcome will be assessed using this criteria.Points to consider:PurposeFunctionAesthetic and performance requirementsMaterials,User requirementsManufacturing processesQuality and safety issuesResource and costGreen design objectives!!!The list on the left is a generic one and you should aim to develop your own list of specifications from your design brief with the help of researched data.Each specification should be justified.Aim to have ten or more specifications.Please be aware that the rest of the project will be continuously assessed against these specifications!BRIEFWhat?ANALYSISHOW?RESEARCHWHY?SPECIFICATIONS
15 Generating ideas –see examples Use a range of design strategies to generate a wide range of imaginative ideas that show evidence of ingenuity and flair: brainstorming, analogy, adaptation, morphological analysis.You should generate a range of feasible design ideas, based on the criteria set up in the design specification. You should communicate aesthetic and functional aspects of the design in 2D/3D, using appropriate design strategies that may include hand and/or computer methods.You should demonstrate the influence of research on design by adding notes to explain design thinking.You should evaluate and test design ideas against the design specification to determine their feasibility, ease of manufacture and potential. This must involve consulting a client or users in a target market group.Evaluation of ideas should result in a full justification for the design selected for development.
17 Generating ideas (6 ideas) Textbook: 47-50, 299 – 302 MUST READ FIRST ww.technologystudent.com Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completedThe ideas should be generated through analogy, adaptation, morphological analysis.Ideas should be expressed free hand drawing, CAD, and physical modeling.You must use a wide range of techniques to generate a wide range of possible solutions that solve your Design Brief:Use a variety of methods/sources – may include modelling.Start ideas with lose sketches then work through to clearer drawingsAnnotation referring to researchAnnotation referring to materials choice and joining techniquesAnnotation referring to possible manufacturing techniquesEvaluation of each design against the specification - preferably a table – including client feedbackJustification of the selected design considering client feedback
18 Evaluation of design ideas against the design specifications –EXAMPLE- 12Idea 3Idea 4Idea 5Idea 6Function and Purpose3ErgonomicsAesthetics & CharacteristicsMaterialsClient feedbackJustified selection of one of the ideas for further development.
19 Developing the chosen solution Develop, model and refine design proposals, using feedback to help make decisionsYou should develop and refine your design proposals using 2D/3D-modelling techniques in a range of appropriate materials to test ideas. You should identify and justify design proposals in terms of function, appearance, performance of proposed components / materials / systems and sub-systems.Demonstrate a wide variety of communication skills, including ICT for designing, modelling and communicatingYou should use appropriate communication for 2D modelling by hand/CAD, i.e. drawing, sketching, flowcharts, pictorial views, orthographic, schematics’ and3D modelling and prototyping, i.e. using card, kits, CADDemonstrate understanding of a range of materials / components /systems.You should demonstrate an understanding of how the working characteristics of materials can be exploited to achieve a product with specific properties.Evaluate design proposals against specification criteria, testing/or accuracy, quality, and ease of manufacture.You should evaluate and test the final design proposal against the design specification to judge the quality of design, accuracy and ease of manufacture and how it meets market and user requirements. The evaluation may involve testing market potential by consulting with a client or users in a target market group.
22 Sketches (2D modelling) clearly showing the development Developing the chosen solution 3+p Textbook: and 299 – 302 MUST READ FIRST Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completedTHERE MUST BE EVIDENCE of appropriate testing and trialing resulting in reasoned decisions about form, patterns, materials, construction / production methods and other items.As you develop, model and refine your idea there must be clear evidence of:Sketches (2D modelling) clearly showing the developmentAnnotate the materials used for each component.Produce detailed drawing for joining techniques and explain them.CAD modelling (preferably Pro Desktop)Solid modelRendered image with the right materials and colours- Pro Desktop AlbumOrthographic drawings in Pro Desktop Engineering drawing with DIMENSIONSPhotographs of physical modelling with annotations – if appropriateEvaluate the design against specification and in consultation with the client.
23 Example of CAD process ProDesktop 2D Design Export File as ‘DXF’ Import ‘DXF’ file‘Engineering Drawing’‘Album’Output to CAM
25 DATA MUST BE INTERPRETED Sustainability analysis for optimization – see handout sustainable-design-mugUse SolidWorks to compare the environmental impact of two or more materials and select:MaterialManufacturing processDATA MUST BE INTERPRETED
26 You should write at least 10 statements. Final Design Specifications 1p Textbook: and 298 – 299; and handout ww.technologystudent.com Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.Your development should result in a clearly defined design specification.You should write at least 10 statements.Begin the specification with the following sentence:To design and manufacture an effective (YOUR PRODUCT) that will appeal to the target audience and be a safe product to use, I must design using the following criteria:Functions explained in detailsSpecific material (s) justifiedSpecific sizes justifiedWhich green design issues and whyEach point should be clearly explained and justified, it should be understood that ideas and the final outcome will be assessed using this criteria.The final specifications must include enough quantitative data so that someone would be able to produce your design without any additional help.They should be an amended list of the initial specifications with the information generated through the development.
27 Planning for production Produce a clear production plan that details the manufacturing specification, quality and safety guidelines and realistic deadlinesThe illustrated solution should give details, where appropriate of construction, dimensions, materials and components.A work order should detail assembly processes, the sequence of assembly, tools, equipment, quality and safety requirements and estimated costs.Take account of time and resource management, when planning manufactureYou are expected to provide estimates for time allowance for each operation statedDemonstrate high level making skills, precision and attention to detail in the manufacture of high quality productsYou are expected to provide evidence of high level making skills that make the best use of available components and materials and they should use a range of tools and equipment with accuracy, confidence and skill. You need to understand that making high quality products depends on planning quality into the design and manufacturing process.
28 Orthographic Projection labelling the parts Planning for production 3+p Textbook: 54-57, MUST READ FIRST !!!! Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completedA library with tool images for the production plan is available at thePlan the making of a scale prototype model of the final solution JUSTIFYING the selected materials for the prototype.Orthographic Projection labelling the partsProduce a CUTTING LIST with part numbers corresponding with the numbers from the drawingFlow chart using standardized symbols to represent the main STAGES OF PRODUCTION including the collection of materials and components, material preparation and processes. (MIN 10)Gantt chart outlining all tasks from the PRODUCTION SCHEDULEInclude a paragraph with SAFETY REQUIREMENTS and risk assessmentA PRODUCTION PLAN for each of the manufacturing steps you identified in your flow/Gantt chart.Produce drawings of the parts (CAM)
29 PRODUCTION PLAN for each stage of manufacturing!!! CUTTING LISTPart No.No. OffLengthWidthThicknessMaterialFinish1 2 200 100 3Plywood Varnish2 1 80 Plywood 40DRAWINGCUTTING LISTStartMark out materialCheck sizesCut out rectangularshape (s) for CAMApply doublesided tapeSet up CAMCheck set upProcess CAMTaskTime in minutes20406080100Mark outCut for CAMApply tapeSet up CAMProcessCAMApply varnishAssembleCheck qualityEvidence of manufacturingDescription of the process(Mark out material)Diagram of ProcessFLOW CHARTMaterial, tools and machinery required(Pencil and ruler)PRODUCTION PLAN for each stage of manufacturing!!!PRODUCTION SCHEDULETextbook: pp20-25;
30 Conclusion and Evaluation 1 Process evaluationThis part is evaluation of the design process and the degree of success in managing the whole project. This is where you discuss how you managed your project: planning, time management, meeting deadlines etc. Include, and refer to, the diagram of the Design Cycle Model DCM2 Product evaluationThe product study is looking at the factors that contribute to its success. You must always evaluate against your specification. You set yourself a list of criteria that had to be followed and now you must say whether you actually followed your initial statements for the design. It is OK to say if you have not met your criteria! Be honest! You will have more to write about and a more interesting evaluation if you didn’t meet all your criteria!3 RecommendationsModifications that could be made to improve product performance.
31 Introduction 1 Process evaluation Conclusion and Evaluation: PROCESS 1 page Textbook: and ; and handout Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.IntroductionExplain why it is necessary to evaluate our work all of the way through a project and to make changes accordingly.1 Process evaluationThis is where you discuss how you managed your project: planning, time management, meeting deadlines etc. Include, and refer to, the diagram of the Design Cycle Model DCM. Using the following headings write brief paragraphs:Time management & Project PlanningHow I Performed With The Design Aspect / PortfolioHow I Performed With The Practical Aspect / Manufacturing The ProductHow I Could Improve In The FutureNew Skills I Have LearntIdentifyingneedsResearchGeneratingIdeasDevelopingsolutionRealisingEvaluating
32 EXAMPLE: outdoor handy Conclusion and Evaluation: PRODUCT 1 page Textbook: and ; and handout Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.EXAMPLE: outdoor handyMethod: call a number under the running water in a shower2 Product evaluationThe product study is looking at the factors that contribute to its success evaluated against your specification.Testing and EvaluatingList the aspects that you will be evaluating (see IB CRITERIA)Explain the method(s) you will use to test each aspect that you are evaluating (Must make use of the MANIKIN, or/and USER FEEDBACK):user trialsuser researchexpert appraisalHL: DEFINE DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLESWrite up the tests that you carried out and centralize the data in tables / charts. Discuss the results that you found.You must have photos here of your model being tested with a manikin.Conclusion that addresses to what extent the design brief has been resolved.YesNoI could call the number.
33 3. Modifications that could be made to improve product performance: Conclusion and Evaluation: Recommendations Textbook: and ; and handout Due:Teacher’s notesCircle the points you completed.3. Modifications that could be made to improve product performance:Modified Specification – you should re-write any specification points that were not suitable or un-realistic from your original specification.Modifications to the Design - You must include here detailed sketches, maybe photos that you can sketch over and amend to show how your design would be modified or improved in terms of shape, proportions, dimensions, colour and additional features such as pattern etc.Further development – If you were able to spend more time on the project or had different resources, materials etc. how could your solution be developed further.All modifications should be based on the data obtained during the product evaluation against the specifications.The further development should also include recommendations for scales of production.
34 What should you have completed by now? Design contextIntroduce the project with clear situationDiscuss design philosophy of minimalismResearch existing minimalist restaurants in detail and in styleDiscuss and summarise key points using pictures of the researched restaurantDescribe the restaurant for which you designDesign Briefthe design goalthe target market for the productthe major constraintsthe criteria by which a good design proposal may be achievedAnalysisWhat do I need to find out?Issues for investigationsPrimary sourcesSecondary sourcesExisting productsSketchPhotoInternetMagazinesMaterialsInvestigate propertiesmaterialsEgg sizesMeasurementsResearchExisting products……..MaterialsEgg Sizes…………..SpecificationsProduce a table with specifications and a scale for ranking the specifications according to their perceived importance.Generating IdeasMethods: Brain stormingAnalogiesAdaptationsAnnotations: StyleMaterialsMakingStrengthsProduction planEvaluation of design ideas against the design specificationsDeveloping the SolutionCAD and Physical MODELFINAL SPECIFICATIONSEvaluationTesting the quality and performance of the product against the original specificationSpecificationI1I 2I 3I 4I 5I 6Function a123Ergonomics