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Week 2 Chapters 52-55. Dispatch 1)In what ways can 2 different species interact? 2)In what biome would you find the tree Wendy and Valerie are next to?

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Presentation on theme: "Week 2 Chapters 52-55. Dispatch 1)In what ways can 2 different species interact? 2)In what biome would you find the tree Wendy and Valerie are next to?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Week 2 Chapters 52-55

2 Dispatch 1)In what ways can 2 different species interact? 2)In what biome would you find the tree Wendy and Valerie are next to? How do you know? 3)How many assignments are in Ms. Morris’ gradebook? Do you think you have them all? 4)Get ready for entrance quiz ANNOUNCEMENTS -Bring composition books tomorrow -Week 1 PPT is now on my Lawndale Teacher Page -Take out Chapters 52-54 notes

3 Shout-outs: No missing assignments Elizabeth Calvin Genesis Nancy Jade Jessica Please don’t fall behind! Get me the missing assignments this week

4 Make observations and come up with explanation

5 Results When grown alone, both species displayed logistic growth and reached carry capacity (64 for P. caudatum; 105 for P. aurelia). In mixed culture, two important events observed: 1. neither grew to size observed when grown alone (effect of competition). 2. P. caudatum was driven to extinction = competitive exclusion -- after extinction of P. caudatum, P. aurelia grew to its carrying capacity.

6 Competition: a closer look Interference ~ actual fighting over resources Exploitative ~ consumption or use of similar resources Competitive Exclusion Principle (Lotka / Volterra)~ 2 species with similar needs for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place √ Gause experiment with Parameciums. 2 species competiting for the same resource; one will die

7 d= is basically shorthand for "the change in“ N = total number of organisms making up the population t = time rmax=the maximal growth rate in the absence of density effects, namely at low population sizes. K=carrying capacity The change in number of organisms over…

8 Density growth and equation breakdown SWF/t2_a1.swf

9 Predation defense Cryptic (camouflage) coloration Aposematic (warning) coloration Mimicry ~ superficial resemblance to another species √ Batesian~ palatable/ harmless species mimics an unpalatable/ harmful model √ Mullerian~ 2 or more unpalatable, aposematically colored species resemble each other

10 Competition Adaptations Resource partitioning ~ sympatric species consume slightly different foods or use other resources in slightly different ways Character displacement ~ sympatric species tend to diverge in those characteristics that overlap Ex: Anolis lizard sp. perching sites in the Dominican Republic. All species eat insects but they have a different perch site. Ex: Darwin’s finch beak size on the Galapagos Islands. A body part has mutated over time so that species can eat a different size seed

11 The Niche Ecological niche ~ the sum total of an organism’s use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment; its “ecological role” √ fundamental ~ the set of resources a population is theoretically capable of using under ideal conditions √ realized ~ the resources a population actually uses Thus, 2 species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical Ex: Barnacle sp. on the coast of Scotland

12 Close notes and teach Each member teachs 5 main points from today’s lecture

13 Activity: Deer graph

14 Dispatch 1)How can species use the same resources without ever seeing each other? 2)Using a book, compare and contrast primary and secondary session Pick up a succession paper Retakes available during office hours

15 Ms. Morris’ Office Hours Mondays--Nutrition Tuesdays—After School Wednesdays—Nutrition and lunch Thursdays--Nutrition Fridays--Nutrition

16 Succession Ecological succession ~ transition in species composition over ecological time Primary ~ begun in lifeless area; no soil, perhaps volcanic activity or retreating glacier Secondary ~ an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact Mt. St. Helens BEFORE 1980 Mt. St. Helens AFTER ERUPTION in1980

17 Glacier Succession Animation e/content/chp55/55020.html

18 Ecosystems and Physical Laws Energy is conserved –But degraded to heat during ecosystem processes –Nutrients are recycled

19 ACTIVITY Why aren’t there 20 links in a food chain? Demonstrate the flow of energy between links in the food chain

20 Dispatch 1)What is the format of the Ecology test on Friday? 2)How will you study for the test? 3)Give 5 things you know about ENERGY. 4)Interpret diagram below. If you finish before timer go to the whiteboard and look at the AP plaque

21 Production Efficiency When a caterpillar feeds on a plant leaf –Only about one-sixth of the energy in the leaf is used for secondary production Figure 54.10 Plant material eaten by caterpillar Cellular respiration Growth (new biomass) Feces 100 J 33 J 200 J 67 J

22 Energy flows through an ecosystem –Entering as light and exiting as heat Figure 54.2 Microorganisms and other detritivores Detritus Primary producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers Heat Sun Key Chemical cycling Energy flow

23 Pyramids of Production This loss of energy with each transfer in a food chain –Can be represented by a pyramid of net production Figure 54.11 Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers 1,000,000 J of sunlight 10 J 100 J 1,000 J 10,000 J

24 Worldwide agriculture could successfully feed many more people –If humans all fed more efficiently, eating only plant material Figure 54.14 Trophic level Secondary consumers Primary consumers Primary producers

25 Where will the oxygen be highest? Why?

26 Dissolved Oxygen Lab

27 Water Quality: DO 2

28 Factors that INCREASE O2 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

29 Gross and Net Primary Production Total primary production in an ecosystem –Is known as that ecosystem’s gross primary production (GPP) Not all of this production –Is stored as organic material in the growing plants Net primary production (NPP) –Is equal to GPP minus the energy used by the primary producers for respiration Only NPP –Is available to consumers

30 Equation NPP=GPP-R Write this in words DESIGN A LAB TO MEASURE NPP Hint: How does cellular respiration affect O2?

31 The Global Energy Budget The amount of solar radiation reaching the surface of the Earth –Limits the photosynthetic output of ecosystems Only a small fraction of solar energy –Actually strikes photosynthetic organisms

32 Different ecosystems vary considerably in their net primary production –And in their contribution to the total NPP on Earth Percentage of Earth’s surface area (a) Average net primary production (g/m 2 /yr) (b) (c)

33 Overall, terrestrial ecosystems –Contribute about two-thirds of global NPP and marine ecosystems about one-third Figure 54.5 180  120  W 60  W 00 60  E120  E 180  North Pole 60  N 30  N Equator 30  S 60  S South Pole

34 Write your background for Lab 12 part b

35 How do we measure cellular respiration?

36 Background, Hypothesis, Materials, Procedures—Lab 12 Part B 1)Put same amount of algae in both vials. 2)Take DO readings 3)Cover 1 vial, leave 1 uncovered 4)Put both in sun for 2 hours 5)Take DO readings

37 Post Quiz A student went to Wilderness Park and 1 location tested DO 2 and the other location tested DO 9. Explain results

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