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The Age of Enlightenment

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1 The Age of Enlightenment

2 The Age of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment, a philosophical movement beginning in France that advocated Reason and logic as the basis of authority and all decisions and using reason and logic to solve social problems

3 The Age of Enlightenment
Many of the United States' Founding Fathers were heavily influenced by Enlightenment-era ideas:(1600s-1800s) particularly in the religious sphere (separation of church and state) And in the political sphere (a major influence on the U.S. Bill of Rights

4 The Age of Enlightenment
Heavily influenced by the Scientific Revolution in Europe during the 1600s Scientific Revolution: the time period where scientists in Europe began to observe, hypothesize, and experiment to reach conclusions about the natural world Challenged prevailing religious beliefs and the Catholic Church’s authority on all things relating to the natural world: Ex Galileo was excommunicated from the Church for arguing that the Earth revolved around the sun (Helio-centered universe) instead of other way around Developed the Scientific Method

5 Philosophes believed in using the scientific method to solve social problems Enlightenment philosophers who met to discuss reason, logic, rationale, and how to solve social problems were against Divine Right and believed the people are the source of government’s power met in underground clubs called Salons

6 Who Were the Philosophes So Mad at?
King Louis XIV of France (r “The Sun King”

7 King Louis XIV (“The Sun King”)
Ruled France as an absolute monarch in control of every aspect of every French citizen’s life Believed his entire kingdom revolved solely around him: called himself “The Sun King”

8 King Louis XIV (“The Sun King”)
Lived a lavish life funded by heavy taxes on most of his subjects Most of his subjects lived in poverty with barely enough to eat

9 King Louis XIV (“The Sun King”)
Believed in Divine Right: Believed God anointed him king so he was only responsible to answer to God, not to his subjects

10 Palace of Versailles Became the French capital Built 1671-1682 by
12 miles outside of Paris Really angered the Philosophes Built by King Louis XIV Shows how out of touch and insincere King Louis XIV was towards his subjects

11 Thomas Hobbes ● British Philosopher
● British Philosopher ● Believed humans were naturally wicked

12 Thomas Hobbes Believed human beings were naturally wicked
Believed human beings could not be trusted to make decisions to benefit all, only to benefit themselves Believed an absolute monarch was necessary to protect human beings from each other (Humans not capable of self rule) Believed human beings were naturally wicked

13 Hobbes: Leviathan and Social Contract
Wrote Leviathan 1651 Argued that the only way to avoid war, chaos, disarray was a strong central ruler Argued that the people and the leader had a Social Contract Hobbes’ Social Contract: people give up their rights to an absolute ruler in exchange for protection, law, and order. People do not have the right to rebel

14 Jean Jacque Rousseau ● Swiss Philosopher ● 1712-1778
● Also had a “Social Contract” ● Wrote The Social Contract Book in 1762

15 Rousseau Believed humans were naturally good and corrupted by society, not the other way around (as Hobbes believed) Believed society forces people to compete brining out the worst in people Believed government forces people to distrust each other and takes freedoms away

16 Rousseau Believed modern technology made people too dependent on one another Believed dependency created inequality, social classes, division

17 Rousseau’s Social Contract
The Social Contract: published 1762 Believed that the people are the source of government powers Believed government’s job was to help people be happy and needs cared for Believed if government did not do its job people had the right to remove leaders, rebel

18 Hobbes’ & Rousseau's Social Contracts
People are naturally wicked People need to surrender their independence to an absolute leader in exchange for law and order People do not have the right to rebel Rousseau People start out good and become corrupted by society People are the source of government’s power Government needs to help people People can rebel if leaders fail to do their job

19 Baron Montesquieu 1689-1755 French Philosopher Believed government’s
power needs to be checked

20 Baron Montesquieu Believed in 3 types of governments:
● Monarchies: ruled by a king/queen guided by honor ● Republics: ruled by elected officials guided by virtue ● Despotisms: ruled by absolute dictators guided by fear

21 Baron Montesquieu Separation of Powers
Believed power in government had to be divided amongst different branches Believed checks and balances are necessary to keep one branch from becoming too powerful Believed the people needed safeguards from government becoming too powerful Heavily influenced America’s founding fathers 1770’s-1780’s 3 Branches of Gov’t included in US Constitution

22 Separation of Powers (Checks and Balances)

23 John Locke 1632-1704 British Philosopher Believed all people were
born with 3 natural rights (Life, Liberty, Property)

24 John Locke Believed people are born with minds as a blank slate to be filled up: not naturally good or bad Believed it was human nature to want to figure things out and to want to make sense of the world around you Disagreed with Hobbes that people are naturally wicked Believed humans were reasonable creatures capable of figuring out anything

25 Locke’s 3 Natural Rights
Locke believed all people born with 3 Natural Rights: Life, Liberty, and Property Locke’s Natural Rights heavily influenced America’s founders Natural Rights included in US Declaration of Independence (Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness)

26 Voltaire 1694-1778 French Philosopher Staunch supporter of individual

27 Voltaire Known for his wit and nonconformity
Believed that organized formal religion was too constricting Was opposed to organized religions criticizing other faiths and practitioners But did believe in freedom of religion

28 Voltaire Staunch supporter of right to a fair trial Heavily influenced
leaders of the French Revolution Was opposed to censorship: "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend, to the death, your right to say it."

29 Mary Wollstonecraft 1759-1797 British philosopher,
author, and feminist

30 Mary Wollstonecraft 1792 wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Argued women are not naturally inferior to men; they just suffer from lack of educational opportunities

31 Mary Wollstonecraft Argued that men and women should be treated as equal beings Argued that social order should be determined by reason (usefulness) not by gender, race, wealth, etc.

32 Mary Wollstonecraft Argued that society trains women to be weak and more concerned with their superficial looks than contributions to society Argued that women should receive the same type and quality of education as men Argued it was a problem that men were so comfortable with treating women as inferiors

33 Mary Wollstonecraft Argued that proper education for women will solve their problems Argued women must be given the opportunity to participate in the public sphere as much as the private sphere Most Enlightenment Philosophes did not agree with her about the roles of women and education for women She was a feminist long before it was acceptable She inspired numerous later generations of feminists in numerous countries

34 Queen Elizabeth I (“The Virgin Queen”)
Was Queen of England Most powerful Queen in European History Believed in Divine Right

35 Queen Elizabeth I (“The Virgin Queen”)
Believed in Divine Right but believed her subjects were like her children and she had to take care of them Never got married or had children: challenged the popular belief that women had to marry

36 Queen Elizabeth I (“The Virgin Queen”)
Even though she believed in Divine Right she still saw the need to rule with reason She settled decades-long religious tension in England (Catholics vs. Protestants) The Philosophes saw her as an inspiration to other monarchs: be an Enlightened ruler

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