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Warm Up 9/27 1)The most common mineral group in Earth’s crust is the ____________. a. Carbonatesc. Oxides b. Silicatesd. Sulfides 2)What are the building.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up 9/27 1)The most common mineral group in Earth’s crust is the ____________. a. Carbonatesc. Oxides b. Silicatesd. Sulfides 2)What are the building."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up 9/27 1)The most common mineral group in Earth’s crust is the ____________. a. Carbonatesc. Oxides b. Silicatesd. Sulfides 2)What are the building blocks of minerals? a. Elementsc. Rocks b. Electronsd. Isotopes 3)The building block of the silicate minerals is called the _______________. a. Silicon-aluminum triangle b. Aluminum-oxygen tetrahedron c. Silicon-oxygen tetrahedron d. Silicon-oxygen triangle Answers: 1) b. 2) a. 3) c.

2 Properties of Minerals Chapter 2, Section 3

3 Color  Small amounts of different elements give the same mineral different colors  This property is not often used to identify minerals

4 Streak  Streak is the color of a mineral in its powdered form  Streak is obtained by rubbing a mineral across a streak plate  The streak’s color never varies between different colors of a mineral  Can also see the differences between minerals with metallic lusters and minerals with nonmetallic (no streak is produced)

5 Luster  Luster is used to describe how light is reflected from the surface of a mineral  Minerals that have the appearance of metals have metallic lusters  Minerals with a nonmetallic luster are described with many different adjectives (glassy, pearly, silky, earthy, brilliant)

6 Luster

7 Crystal Form  Crystal form is the visible expression of a mineral’s internal arrangement of atoms  When a mineral develops slowly, it will form a well-defined crystal  Most of the time, minerals are competing for space, resulting in an intergrown crystal structure

8 Crystal Form

9 Concept Check  What two conditions produce crystals with well-defined faces?  Unrestricted space and a slow rate of formation

10 Hardness  Hardness – a measure of the resistance of a mineral to being scratched  The Mohs scale consists of 10 minerals arranged from 10 (hardest) to 1 (softest)  Diamond, the hardest mineral on Earth, can scratch anything  You can use your fingernail, copper plate, glass, quartz, etc.

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12 Concept Check  What are three of the most useful properties for identifying unknown minerals?  Hardness, streak, and luster

13 Cleavage  Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to cleave, or break, along flat, even surfaces  Some minerals have structures which allow them to break easily into sheets (mica)  Other minerals have very strong bonds, and fracture instead

14 Cleavage

15 Fracture  Minerals that do not show cleavage when broken are said to fracture (the uneven breakage of a mineral)

16 Concept Check  How are cleavage and fracture different?  Cleavage is the tendency for a mineral to break along flat, even surfaces. Fracture is the uneven breakage of a mineral.

17 Density  Density is the property of all matter that is the ratio of an object’s mass to its volume Density (d) = mass (m) / Volume (V)  Density is usually expressed in g/cm 3 in Geology  Many common minerals have densities between 2 and 5 g/cm 3  The density of a pure mineral is a constant value, and can be used to determine the purity or identity of some minerals

18 Distinctive Properties of Minerals  Some minerals can be recognized by other distinctive properties  Some minerals are magnetic, some you can see through, some streaks smell like rotten eggs, and some will bubble when acid is placed on them  A mineral’s properties depend on the elements that compose the mineral (its composition) and its structure (how its atoms are arranged)

19 Assignment  Read Chapter 2, Section 3 (pg )  Do Section 2.3 Assessment #1-6 (pg. 55)  Study for the Chapter 2 Quiz!


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