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British Imperialism in India Ch.11 Sec. 4. India.

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Presentation on theme: "British Imperialism in India Ch.11 Sec. 4. India."— Presentation transcript:

1 British Imperialism in India Ch.11 Sec. 4

2 India

3 Great Britain in India 1600’s Great Britain set up trading posts through out India

4 British East India Company ● controlled British trade in India eventually the company gained political control over Bangladesh, Southern India, and Northern India (along Ganges River) eventually the company gained political control over Bangladesh, Southern India, and Northern India (along Ganges River)

5 British East India Company 1800’s: company operated in India with no regulation by British government 1800’s: company operated in India with no regulation by British government company had its own army company had its own army Company army led by Company army led by British army officers

6 Sepoys Indians who joined British armies in India Indians who joined British armies in India Resented by other Indians Resented by other Indians

7 “Jewel in the Crown” Great Britain considered India its most precious jewel (colony) in its Imperial crown Great Britain considered India its most precious jewel (colony) in its Imperial crown

8 “Jewel in the Crown” Industrial Revolution turned India into a major supplier of raw materials to Great Britain Industrial Revolution turned India into a major supplier of raw materials to Great Britain 300 million Indians were 300 million Indians were a large market for British products

9 “Jewel in the Crown” British forbade India from trading on its own with other countries British forbade India from trading on its own with other countries India was forced to produce raw materials for only Britain and to buy finished products from only Britain India was forced to produce raw materials for only Britain and to buy finished products from only Britain Indian competition with British finished products was forbidden Indian competition with British finished products was forbidden

10 “Jewel in the Crown” Britain set up a railroad network to take raw materials from inside India to its ports Britain set up a railroad network to take raw materials from inside India to its ports

11 Raw Materials Taken from India Tea Tea Indigo (dye for clothing) Indigo (dye for clothing)

12 Raw Materials Taken from India Coffee Coffee Cotton Cotton

13 Raw Materials Taken from India Jute (fiber for making rope) Opium (plant that heroin is made from) Opium (plant that heroin is made from)

14 Raw Materials Taken from India Britain relied more on raw materials from India as wars around the world cut off British supplies from other places Britain relied more on raw materials from India as wars around the world cut off British supplies from other places example: American Civil War ( ) example: American Civil War ( ) made Indian cotton more important to Great Britain because cotton supply from America was cut off

15 Positives for India Great Britain laid the world’s third largest railroad network in India Great Britain laid the world’s third largest railroad network in India Railroads brought unity to disconnected regions in India Railroads brought unity to disconnected regions in India Modern road Modern roadnetwork ■ Telephone and telegraph lines Dams, bridges, canals Dams, bridges, canals Sanitation and public health improved Sanitation and public health improved Schools/ Schools/ colleges founded Truces between Truces between local warring rulers in India

16 Negatives for India British held all political and economic power British held all political and economic power British restricted Indian- owned industries British restricted Indian- owned industries Cash crops made it impossible for small farmers to produce enough food for themselves Cash crops made it impossible for small farmers to produce enough food for themselves Racist attitudes of most British officials and missionaries threatened Indian traditional life Racist attitudes of most British officials and missionaries threatened Indian traditional life

17 Indians Rebel By 1850 most Indians resented that Great Britain owned their country By 1850 most Indians resented that Great Britain owned their country Indians were angry at attempts to forcefully convert them to Christianity Indians were angry at attempts to forcefully convert them to Christianity Indians were angry Britain controlled all useful land in their country Indians were angry Britain controlled all useful land in their country ■ Indians were angry at the constant racism expressed towards them by the British

18 Sepoy Mutiny 1857 gossip spread amongst Sepoys (Indian soldiers for the British) 1857 gossip spread amongst Sepoys (Indian soldiers for the British) the seals of their ammunition had to be bitten off the seals of their ammunition had to be bitten off they believed the British dipped the seals of their they believed the British dipped the seals of their ammunition in beef and pork (Hindus can not eat beef/ Muslims can not eat pork)

19 Sepoy Mutiny British commander was outraged when 85 Sepoys refused to accept the ammunition British commander was outraged when 85 Sepoys refused to accept the ammunition The Sepoys were jailed for disobeying orders The Sepoys were jailed for disobeying orders May 10, 1857 Sepoys rebelled; marched on Delhi (Indian capital) May 10, 1857 Sepoys rebelled; marched on Delhi (Indian capital) rebellion spread into northern and central India rebellion spread into northern and central India

20 Sepoy Mutiny Fierce fighting between British and Sepoys (aided by other Indians) Fierce fighting between British and Sepoys (aided by other Indians) East India Company took more than a year to regain control of the country East India Company took more than a year to regain control of the country British government sent troops to help them British government sent troops to help them

21 Indians Did Not Fully Unite During Sepoy Mutiny serious splits between Hindus and Muslims serious splits between Hindus and Muslims unclear inconsistent leadership unclear inconsistent leadership Many Indian princes did not take part in the rebellion (made alliances with Many Indian princes did not take part in the rebellion (made alliances withBritish) Sikhs (Indian religious group) remained loyal to the British Sikhs (Indian religious group) remained loyal to the British

22 Sikhs

23 Sikhs Minority Indian religious group Minority Indian religious group Sikhs feared Muslims would regain Sikhs feared Muslims would regain control of the country during control of the country during Sepoy Mutiny ■ Muslim Mughals ruled India before Britain

24 Sikhs Sikhs replaced Sepoys in Britain’s Indian army after the Sepoy Mutiny Sikhs replaced Sepoys in Britain’s Indian army after the Sepoy Mutiny Mughals did not allow religious freedom Mughals did not allow religious freedom Great Britain allowed some religious freedom in India Great Britain allowed some religious freedom in India

25 Turning Point 1858 British government took direct control over India (because of the Mutiny) 1858 British government took direct control over India (because of the Mutiny) Raj (time period when Raj (time period when India was under Great Britain’s control: )

26 Raj India was divided into 11 Provinces and 250 districts India was divided into 11 Provinces and 250 districts sometimes a handful of sometimes a handful of officials would be the only officials would be the only British amongst millions of British amongst millions of Indians in a district Indians in a district Mutiny increased distrust between British and Indians: it fueled more British racism towards Indians Mutiny increased distrust between British and Indians: it fueled more British racism towards Indians

27 Ram Mohun Roy ( ) well-educated Indian who began a campaign to modernize India well-educated Indian who began a campaign to modernize India he was opposed to India’s caste system (social class system that ties a person to the social class they are into for life: based on Hindu beliefs) he was opposed to India’s caste system (social class system that ties a person to the social class they are into for life: based on Hindu beliefs) opposed to child marriages and widow suicides opposed to child marriages and widow suicides believed these practices needed to be changed if India wanted to be free from rule by outsiders believed these practices needed to be changed if India wanted to be free from rule by outsiders

28 Ram Mohun Roy ( ) other Indian writers picked up on Roy’s ideas and called for changes other Indian writers picked up on Roy’s ideas and called for changes Indian resented being second- class citizens in their own country Indian resented being second- class citizens in their own country Indians were paid 20 times less than British Indians were paid 20 times less than British Indians could not hold top jobs in government Indians could not hold top jobs in government

29 Indian National Congress 1885 Made up of Hindus; called for self-government Made up of Hindus; called for self-government upset that Britain segregated Bengal (Indian city) into Muslim section and Hindu section in 1905 upset that Britain segregated Bengal (Indian city) into Muslim section and Hindu section in 1905 INC led acts of violence against British in Bengal INC led acts of violence against British in Bengal 1911 Britain changed the order of segregation 1911 Britain changed the order of segregation

30 Muslim League 1906 Made up of Muslims Made up of Muslims also called for self-government also called for self-government also upset about segregation of Bengal in1905 also upset about segregation of Bengal in1905 also participated in acts of violence against British in India also participated in acts of violence against British in India

31 Indian Nationalism Grows Indian National Congress (Hindus)/Muslim League (Muslims) Found Common Ground Indian National Congress (Hindus)/Muslim League (Muslims) Found Common Ground Both worked together towards Indian Independence Both worked together towards Indian Independence

32 World War I Great Britain got 1 Million Indians to enlist in the British army to fight in World War I Great Britain got 1 Million Indians to enlist in the British army to fight in World War I Britain promised Indians self- government in exchange for them enlisting in the British army Britain promised Indians self- government in exchange for them enlisting in the British army 1918 Indian troops returned home: expected Britain to fulfill its promise

33 Rowlatt Act (1919) instead Indian troops were treated as second class citizens again by Great Britain instead Indian troops were treated as second class citizens again by Great Britain many Indians committed acts of many Indians committed acts of violence against British in India in response Great Britain passes Rowlatt Act (1919) in response

34 Rowlatt Act (1919) allowed British gov’t to jail protestors for 2 years with no trial allowed British gov’t to jail protestors for 2 years with no trial violent protests by Indians in Punjab (province with most Indian World War I veterans) violent protests by Indians in Punjab (province with most Indian World War I veterans)

35 Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919) 10,000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amritsar (capital of Punjab Province): festival to pray and hear political speeches 10,000 Hindus and Muslims went to Amritsar (capital of Punjab Province): festival to pray and hear political speeches alliance of Hindus and Muslims scared the British alliance of Hindus and Muslims scared the British

36 Amritsar Massacre (Spring 1919) Britain had earlier banned public protests: Britain issued the ban without informing most Indians! Britain had earlier banned public protests: Britain issued the ban without informing most Indians! British General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed crowd without warning British General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on the unarmed crowd without warning Shooting lasted 10 minutes: 400 Indians Killed; 1200 wounded Shooting lasted 10 minutes: 400 Indians Killed; 1200 wounded news of the massacre spread rapidly across India: Indians demanded independence news of the massacre spread rapidly across India: Indians demanded independence

37 Mohandas Gandhi ( ) Amritsar Massacre set the stage for Mohandas Gandhi to become leader of the Indian Independence Movement Amritsar Massacre set the stage for Mohandas Gandhi to become leader of the Indian Independence Movement his teachings blended ideas from all major world religions (especially Hinduism, Christianity, Islam) his teachings blended ideas from all major world religions (especially Hinduism, Christianity, Islam)

38 Mohandas Gandhi ( ) Gandhi preached/practiced Civil Disobedience Gandhi preached/practiced Civil Disobedience deliberate and public refusal to obey any unjust law deliberate and public refusal to obey any unjust law rebellion without violence rebellion without violence 1920 Indian National Congress officially adopts Gandhi’s policy as a means to push for independence 1920 Indian National Congress officially adopts Gandhi’s policy as a means to push for independence

39 Mohandas Gandhi ( ) Gandhi’s Plan for Civil Disobedience: Gandhi’s Plan for Civil Disobedience: Refuse to buy British goods Refuse to buy British goods Refuse to attend British schools Refuse to attend British schools Refuse to pay British taxes Refuse to pay British taxes Refuse to vote in elections Refuse to vote in elections Indians weave their own Indians weave their own cloth (to put British cloth out of business)

40 Civil Disobedience 1922 Indian rioters attacked a police station and set officers on fire! 1922 Indian rioters attacked a police station and set officers on fire! Many British businesses went out of business in India Many British businesses went out of business in India British arrested Indians who protested and boycotted British arrested Indians who protested and boycotted

41 Salt Acts 1930 These laws required that Indians buy salt only from the British government (without refrigeration, salt was crucial to keeping food from spoiling) These laws required that Indians buy salt only from the British government (without refrigeration, salt was crucial to keeping food from spoiling) Required Indians to pay Required Indians to pay a sales tax to British on salt as well

42 Salt March 1930 In protest Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the coast to make their own salt In protest Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the coast to make their own salt demonstrators marched to a British salt processing plant to protest demonstrators marched to a British salt processing plant to protest made salt by evaporating sea water made salt by evaporating sea water

43 Salt March 1930 British police attacked protestors with steel clubs British police attacked protestors with steel clubs Protestors refused to defend themselves: marching peacefully Protestors refused to defend themselves: marching peacefully British arrested 60,000 peaceful protestors (including Gandhi) British arrested 60,000 peaceful protestors (including Gandhi) International newspapers covered the event: won worldwide support for Gandhi’s movement International newspapers covered the event: won worldwide support for Gandhi’s movement

44 Great Britain Grants India Self-Rule 1935 Government of India Act 1935 Government of India Act ■ British Parliament allows India some self- rule ■ Allowed for local self- government (mayors) and limited elections (regional representatives) This was the first step in full independence for India This was the first step in full independence for India Gandhi and his campaign was successful Gandhi and his campaign was successful

45 Internal Conflict India does not get full independence until after World War II (after 1945) India does not get full independence until after World War II (after 1945) Hindus far outnumbered Muslims in India Hindus far outnumbered Muslims in India Hindus and Muslims had conflicting views for India’s future Hindus and Muslims had conflicting views for India’s future Leads to more internal conflict Leads to more internal conflict


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