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Napoleon Rules France. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)

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Presentation on theme: "Napoleon Rules France. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Napoleon Rules France

2 Napoleon Bonaparte ( )

3 Napoleon Comes to Power  ● 1799 The Directory asks General Napoleon to help subdue uprisings ● Afterwards Napoleon decides to assume power over the government: declares himself the new ruler of France ( Had control of the army)

4 Napoleon Rules France  1800 French people voted for Napoleon to be the leader if France (after he was already in power!!!) France achieved stability under Napoleon

5 Napoleon’s Achievements  strong central government  stabilizes the French economy  eliminated government corruption  Relationship with the Church  Napoleonic Code

6 French Economy  Napoleon set up an equal tax collection system (all 3 estates paid taxes!!!)  Napoleon established a National Bank for the government to borrow $ from

7 Napoleon eliminated government corruption  He fired corrupt government officials  Set up Lyces: government run public schools: for rich and poor children Became a model for public schools in America

8 Lyces (Public Schools)

9  Napoleon signed a Concordat (agreement) with Pope Pius VII Church would keep its prestige in France but not its control over French affairs agreement kept the French people happy, kept Napoleon in the favor of the Catholic Church Relationship with the Church

10 Napoleonic Code  His greatest achievement: a comprehensive system of laws  The code promoted order and authority over individual rights  Brought order back to France

11 Napoleonic Code (con’t) Women lost the right to own/sell property Freedom of speech and the press were restricted  Allowed slavery again in French colonies  All of these were rights the Directory had granted; and Napoleon lessoned

12 Napoleon’s Empire 1811

13 Napoleon’s Empire  December 2, 1804: Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France

14 Napoleon: Emperor of France

15 Battle of Trafalgar  October 21, 1805: off the coast of Spain  Naval Battle: Napoleon and Spanish allies vs. Great Britain  France lost 22 ships; Great Britain lost 0!!!  Great Britain’s victory ensures Napoleon will never invade Great Britain: beginning of Napoleon’s downfall

16 Battle of Trafalgar

17 Napoleon’s Battles Map

18 Napoleon’s 3 Big Mistakes Peninsular War Trade Embargo Invasion of Russia

19 Peninsular War

20

21

22  February 1808 Napoleon Invades Spain  Spanish fought the French using Guerilla Tactics: Hit and Run, Hide and seek

23 Peninsular War (con’t)  Great Britain sends aid to Spanish Guerillas for the first few years  By 1811 Great Britain and Portugal join Spain against Napoleon VS. VS.

24 Peninsular War Results  Spain and Portugal nearly destroyed: left in disarray until 1850s  French Army severely weakened: allows Napoleon to be defeated later  Allows Great Britain to build other alliances against Napoleon  Allows Great Britain to become preeminent power in Europe

25 Trade Embargo 1806  Napoleon did not want any nation under his control trading with Great Britain  As a result he forbade France and all nations he controlled from any foreign trade whatsoever  Trade Embargo crippled French economy  Most controlled nations ignored the embargo and traded with Britain any ways

26 Louisiana Purchase

27  Napoleon sells Louisiana Territory to America 1803: to raise money for his wars with Great Britain (Amer. Pres. Thomas Jefferson)  America pays $15 million for 530 million total acres: Doubles America’s size

28 Napoleon Invades Russia 1812

29  Russia began to ignore Trade Embargo in 1811  Napoleon was pissed: used as an excuse to invade Russia  June 22, 1812 Napoleon takes 600,000 troops to invade Russia

30 Napoleon Invades Russia 1812  Russians continuously retreated deeper into Russia: burned everything as they retreated: Slash and Burn Tactics This prevented Napoleon’s Troops from replenishing Food, supplies, water, Shelter Clothing, etc.

31 Napoleon Invades Russia 1812  By the time Napoleon reached Moscow it was destroyed and Russian government was gone  Napoleon’s Invasion gained nothing!!!

32 Napoleon Invades Russia 1812  November 1812 Napoleon finally decides to retreat from Russia during a harsh winter

33 Napoleon Invades Russia 1812  Napoleon Invades Russia with 600,000+ Troops: He leaves with less than 40,000  Most died from starvation, Hunger, freezing, not combat  The Russian Invasion permanently cripples Napoleon’s army  The Russian Invasion Allows Napoleon to be ultimately defeated soon after

34 Napoleon’s Downfall Napoleon’s enemies take advantage of his weaknesses Britain, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, and Austria join forces against him

35 Battle of Leipzig  October 1813, Germany  Napoleon’s army was now weak and inexperienced  The allies cut his army up easily  Beginning of the end for Napoleon

36 Napoleon’s Downfall  March 1814 the Russian Czar and Prussian King parade through Paris

37 Napoleon’s Downfall  Napoleon wanted to fight on, his generals refused  April 1814, Napoleon agreed to surrender  was exiled to Elba (a tiny island off the Italian coast)

38 Elba

39 Elba

40 Napoleon’s Comeback  King Louis XVIII (brother of King Louis XVI) becomes king of France  he quickly became unpopular amongst the peasants for trying to restore the old (pre- revolution) order to France News spread to Napoleon Napoleon escaped Elba

41 Napoleon’s Comeback March 1, 1815 Napoleon landed in France again Volunteers signed up immediately to oust Louis XVIII Within days they invaded Paris and Louis fled to the border Napoleon was again emperor of France European allies got their armies ready easily able to rally support and an army

42 Battle of Waterloo June 15, 1815

43 Battle of Waterloo  Napoleon attacked the British at Waterloo, Belgium  The Prussian army arrived later in the day to help the British

44 Battle of Waterloo  2 days later Napoleon’s army fled the battle field in defeat June 1815  this ended Napoleon’s last bid for power (called The Hundred Days)

45 Napoleon’s 2 nd Downfall  Napoleon was this time exiled to St. Helena (s remote island in the South Atlantic)  He lived there in lonely exile for 6 years  He died of stomach cancer in 1821

46 St. Helena

47 Napoleon’s Legacy  He was a military genius and brilliant administrator  Millions of lives were lost in his wars  His legal code and reforms in French government outlived him  Napoleon’s defeat allowed European countries to establish the new government in France: They brought back King Louis XVIII to rule as a Constitutional Monarch

48 Congress of Vienna 1815  Meeting of major powers of Europe after Napoleon’s 2 nd Downfall  Purpose was to bring stability to Europe with Napoleon out of the way  Redrew the map of Europe  Temporarily Resolved differences between European nations  Many weaker nations and France not happy with results  Restores King Louis XVIII as ruler of France

49 Congress of Vienna 1815


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