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5.1 (a) (b) (c) Sea anemoneJelly fishHydra A B CD EFG50 mV 20 ms.

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Presentation on theme: "5.1 (a) (b) (c) Sea anemoneJelly fishHydra A B CD EFG50 mV 20 ms."— Presentation transcript:

1 5.1 (a) (b) (c) Sea anemoneJelly fishHydra A B CD EFG50 mV 20 ms

2 5.2 Helminthoida Helminthopsis Gyrolithes Cochlichnus Gordia Regular meandering without crossing Planolites Irregular meandering without crossing Spiraling Meandering sinusoidally Irregularly meandering and crossing Simple straight Second-order meanders First-order meanders Irregular Straight Early Cambrian Precambrian

3 5.3 Water pik Siphon nerve Abdominal ganglion Genital nerve Pericardial nerve Branchial nerve Gill Siphon Stimulating and recording electrodes

4 5.4 Siphon Mantle shelf Gill Int. II L22 L23 L16 Polysynaptic Monosynaptic SN1SN2SN3SN4SN5SN6SN7SN8 L7LDG1LDG2L9G1L9G2RDG

5 5.5 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

6 5.6 Antenna tap Do-si-do Retreat Strike/Rip Meral spread No agonistic behavior Wresling

7 5.7 Reflex Chain Motor neurons Stretch receptors contractedrelaxed Antagonist muscles Central Pattern Generator CNS CPG contractedrelaxed Antagonist muscles CNS

8 5.8 MCPGs M M Buccal ganglion Cerebral ganglion Buccal mass Lip muscles

9 5.9 600 Hz 200 Hz 400 Hz 600 Hz (1) (2) (3) (2) (4)(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) DS Habituation Trials Resting period

10 5.10 DS

11 5.11 Stimulus generator Time-date generator Video cassette recorder Petri plate holder Micromanipulator stand Microscope C. elegans Video monitor Antagonistic reflex systems mediate forward and backward locomotion in response to a tap stimulus. HeadTail Before habituation: ALM and AVM PLM AVM and ALM Backward motion PLM Forward motion (a) (b)

12 5.12 Siphon Head SN IN L7 Gill

13 5.13 Interneuron Serotonin and other neurotransmitters Axo-axonic synapse L7 Sensory neuron from siphon Membrane proteins Adenylate cyclase cAMP PKC PKA Closes K + channels Opens Ca ++ channels Mobilization of vescicles Spike broadening Short-term sensitization Dishabituation

14 5.14

15 5.15 Dolabrifera Bursatella Dolabella Aplysia Akera Bulla Increased excitability Spike broadening Loss of both: Increased excitability Spike broadening

16 5.16 Body surface Body surface Body surface Effector Lower invertebrates Higher invertebrates Vertebrates PlasticExcitatory

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