2ObjectivesConcepts:–Functional group, alkane, alkene, alkyne, alcohol, carbonyl, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ether, ester, amine, amide, halogenoalkane–Primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, tertiary alcohol, primary amine, secondary amine, tertiary amine,Skills:–Draw and state names of the compounds containing up to six carbon atoms with the following functional groups: aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, alcohol, amide, amine, ester and halogenoalkane.
3Functional GroupsAs has already been indicated, alkanes are relatively unreactive.For an organic molecule to be reactive it needs something additional.A site of reactivity in an organic molecule is called a functional group.C=C double is a functional group.Other functional groups contain elements other than C or H, notably O, N and Cl.
4Functional GroupA functional group could be an atom or a group of atoms within a molecule that is responsible for its characteristic chemical reactions.
5alkanes C H Only carbon and hydrogen All single bonds Their names end with -aneEthane
6alkenes H C Only carbon and hydrogen A carbon to carbon double bond Their names end with -eneEthene
7alkynes H C Only carbon and hydrogen A carbon to carbon triple bond Their names end with -yneEthyne
8alcohols Only one oxygen Has an O-H group Can be classified as 1º/2º/3º according to position of O-H group on carbon skeletonThey are named as alkanolCHOEthanol
9C H O H3 C H O C H O Tertiary alcohol Primary alcohol Secondary alcohol
10aldehydes H O C Only one oxygen Has a C=O group C=O group is at the end of the carbon chain, so is next door to a hydrogen atomThey are named as alkanalEthanal
11ketones C H O Only one oxygen Has a C=O group C=O group is not at the end of carbon chain, so is next door to 2 carbonsThey are named as alkanoneCHOPropanone
12estersHas 2 oxygensOne oxygen is part of a C=O bond, the other is next door, sandwiched between two carbons.They are named as AlkylalkanoateCHOMethylethanoate
13carboxylic acids H O C Has 2 oxygens Has O-H and C=O groups on the same carbon atomThis -COOH group has to be at the end of a carbon chain.They are named as alkanoic acidCHOEthanoic acid
14ether Has 1 oxygen No O-H or C=O group The oxygen is sandwiched between two carbon atomsTheir names end with -etherCHOEthylmethylether
15Amines Contain Nitrogen Has an –NH2 group Can be classified as 1º/2º/3º according to the number of carbon atoms connected to the NThey are named as alkyl amineCHNEthylamine