2 ObjectivesConcepts:–Functional group, alkane, alkene, alkyne, alcohol, carbonyl, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ether, ester, amine, amide, halogenoalkane–Primary alcohol, secondary alcohol, tertiary alcohol, primary amine, secondary amine, tertiary amine,Skills:–Draw and state names of the compounds containing up to six carbon atoms with the following functional groups: aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, alcohol, amide, amine, ester and halogenoalkane.
3 Functional GroupsAs has already been indicated, alkanes are relatively unreactive.For an organic molecule to be reactive it needs something additional.A site of reactivity in an organic molecule is called a functional group.C=C double is a functional group.Other functional groups contain elements other than C or H, notably O, N and Cl.
4 Functional GroupA functional group could be an atom or a group of atoms within a molecule that is responsible for its characteristic chemical reactions.
5 alkanes C H Only carbon and hydrogen All single bonds Their names end with -aneEthane
6 alkenes H C Only carbon and hydrogen A carbon to carbon double bond Their names end with -eneEthene
7 alkynes H C Only carbon and hydrogen A carbon to carbon triple bond Their names end with -yneEthyne
8 alcohols Only one oxygen Has an O-H group Can be classified as 1º/2º/3º according to position of O-H group on carbon skeletonThey are named as alkanolCHOEthanol
9 C H O H3 C H O C H O Tertiary alcohol Primary alcohol Secondary alcohol
10 aldehydes H O C Only one oxygen Has a C=O group C=O group is at the end of the carbon chain, so is next door to a hydrogen atomThey are named as alkanalEthanal
11 ketones C H O Only one oxygen Has a C=O group C=O group is not at the end of carbon chain, so is next door to 2 carbonsThey are named as alkanoneCHOPropanone
12 estersHas 2 oxygensOne oxygen is part of a C=O bond, the other is next door, sandwiched between two carbons.They are named as AlkylalkanoateCHOMethylethanoate
13 carboxylic acids H O C Has 2 oxygens Has O-H and C=O groups on the same carbon atomThis -COOH group has to be at the end of a carbon chain.They are named as alkanoic acidCHOEthanoic acid
14 ether Has 1 oxygen No O-H or C=O group The oxygen is sandwiched between two carbon atomsTheir names end with -etherCHOEthylmethylether
15 Amines Contain Nitrogen Has an –NH2 group Can be classified as 1º/2º/3º according to the number of carbon atoms connected to the NThey are named as alkyl amineCHNEthylamine