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Presentation subtitle White Australia’s Demise and Post Vietnam Refugee Crisis Prof Richard Broome La Trobe University.

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Presentation on theme: "Presentation subtitle White Australia’s Demise and Post Vietnam Refugee Crisis Prof Richard Broome La Trobe University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presentation subtitle White Australia’s Demise and Post Vietnam Refugee Crisis Prof Richard Broome La Trobe University

2 Example presentation title Page 2 1: Background Understanding 19thC Racism Origins of White Australia Policy Connections of whiteness and nationality

3 Example presentation title Page 3 Anti-Chinese Sentiment Re-emerges in 1870s Tolerance ends Workers’ anxiety Maritime Strike 1878 Anti-Chinese Immigration Act 1881 Chinese in Melbourne furniture trade Extends to migration morals & nationalism

4 Example presentation title Page 4 Anti-Chinese Campaign Anxieties re. Chinese Commissioners’ Visit 1887 ‘Afghan’ Crisis 1888 Legislation in NSW> all colonies Racism underpins these moves stereotyping

5 Example presentation title Page 5 Bulletin: Anti-Chinese Campaign

6 Example presentation title Page 6 Late 19thC. Invasion Novels International genre Anxiety re national strength, unity, race fitness William Lane’s White or Yellow (1888) Critique of Brit.capitalism Of urban masculinity Lane and the labour movement Creation ‘New Australia’

7 Example presentation title Page 7 Discourse of Asia Rising Charles Pearson:reformer His National Life and Character (1893) Influential: why? His views of white and other races Challenged racial determinism Transnational influence

8 Example presentation title Page 8 3: Alfred Deakin & Immigration Act Brilliant rise - MP @ 24 Most eminent colonial Cosmopolitan man American influences 1888 Race hierarchy-whiteness Nation & homogeneity Mississippi/Natal test Immig Restrict’n Act 1901 London Morning Post Rationale‘New Protection’

9 Example presentation title Page 9 Achieving Whiteness Pacific Islanders Expulsion Act 1906 Aust. Constitution ignores Aboriginal presence State Aboriginal Acts Non-white decline Diplomatic exceptions

10 Example presentation title Page 10 Sydney 1908: Burns v. Johnson 1900c:Colour line in US-controlled boxing Not in UK – Peter Jackson’s bouts Or Australia Whiteman’s counties not exact replicas But race dominant Western discourse

11 Example presentation title Page 11 Australia’s Tri-level of Identity 1: Australian nationalism 2: British patriotism 3: Race patriotism Hancock (1930): ‘Independent Australian Britons’

12 Example presentation title Page 12 Paris Peace Conference 1918-1919 Pres. Wilson idealism Japan seeks racial equality Diplomatic struggles Dominions dominate Hughes outspoken Japan’s humiliation Treaty’s legacy - Whiteness & Japanese militarism Prime Minister Billy Hughes Aust Nat Lib pic an 12266389

13 Example presentation title Page 13 Deportation Controversies 1946-9 Malaysian seamen International & local disapproval Not just Asians > pic. O’Keefe case 1949 Calwell’s opposition WAP dented

14 Example presentation title Page 14 Modifications in the 1950s Special cases cause difficulty: Chinese nationals; Eurasians and the 50% rule; war brides and Cherry Parker case Asian students Asian engagement and the Columbo Plan Holt’s 1956 administrative refinements Migration Act 1958: end of dictation test

15 Example presentation title Page 15 1960s Policy Debate: For Change Principle: academics, churches & NGOs Cosmopolitanism: students & elites Pragmatism: Foreign Affairs Dept Immigration Reform Group: Mackie, Rivett Peter Heydon, Secretary Immigration Dept Hubert Opperman, Minister of Immigration

16 Example presentation title Page 16 1960s Policy Debate: For Status Quo Inertia: Many officers of Immigration Dept. Tradition: Most unions Defence/Cold War fears: RSL 60-70% of public opinion- racial world-view Arthur Calwell Leader of Opposition Prime Minister Robert Menzies

17 Example presentation title Page 17 Shifts within Labor Party 1966 Whitlam replaces Calwell as leader – seeks to modernise ALP 1971 ALP National Conf’ence: 3 principles 1972 win: immigration no election issue: But WAP ended + reduced targets 1973: Aust Citizenship Act –ends British preference

18 Example presentation title Page 18 Consequences of New Policy Al Grassby tours Asia to bury WAP Dept of Immigration reformed Lower annual targets: change minimised 1973 changes: evolutionary from 1956+ Acceptable responses to a changing context - sig. public acceptance 1975 Racial Discrimination Act

19 Example presentation title Page 19 Rise of Multiculturalism Aim of the Whitlam Govt: integration within non–discriminatory Australian society Aust. Reality: poly-ethnic by 1971 Labor govt focussed on migrant problems Al Grassby introduced new paradigm and shifted the debate - ‘family of the nation’ Subsequent Govts adopt - Frazer

20 Example presentation title Page 20 The end of ‘White Australia’ tested by Asian Refugee Crisis 1976-82 End of Vietnam War April 1975 Aust. accepts few at fall of Saigon Vietnam’s internal problems & war with Kampuchea, China create mass exodus Two million displaced in Indo-China Flee by land and in boats 1 M+ seek refuge overseas; 0.4 m in 1979 alone Malaysia & Thailand’s solution Boat people arrive in Australia April 1976+

21 Example presentation title Page 21 Australia’s Strategies Stem flow and introduce orderly arrival Internationalise the issue- internat. law Geneva Conferences 1978, 1979 Australia’s intake 1976-82: 176K Comparative international intake –largest Success: internal divisions ameliorated

22 Example presentation title Page 22 Yet: 1984 Immigration Debate Blainey claims: minority driving the policy West: ‘Asianisation of Australia’, misread? Protests from Blainey’s colleagues Blainey’s All for Australia (1984): ‘the secret room’ & conspiracy of elites theory Surrender Australia? (1985) First modern History War

23 Example presentation title Page 23 John Howard & ‘One Australia’ 1985 becomes Opposition Leader 1988 rejects Aboriginal treaty & guilt 1989 Attacks multiculturalism ‘One Australia’ Immigration: opposes family reunion & large-scale Asian immigration (//s Blainey) 1989 Howard ousted Lazarus rises 1994, Hanson 1996

24 Example presentation title Page 24 Bibliography Lake Marilyn & Reynolds. Henry, Drawing the Global Colour Line, MUP, 2008. Markus, Andrew. Fear & Hatred. Purifying Australia and California, 1850-1901, H & I, 1979. Walker, David. Anxious Nation. Australia and the Rise of Asia 1850- 1939, UQP, 1999. Broome, Richard, ‘The Australian Reaction to Jack Johnson’, R. Cashman & M. McKernan, Sport in History, UQP 1979. Tavan, Gwenda. The Long Slow Death of White Australia, Scribe, Melb. 2005 Viviani, Nancy. The Long Journey. Vietnamese Migration and Settlement in Australia, Melbourne University Press, Melb. 1984.

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