Presentation on theme: "More Analysis, Less Narrative"— Presentation transcript:
1 More Analysis, Less Narrative Practical Strategies to Assist Students in Developing Analytical Skills
2 GoalsWorking backward from the Year 12 Revolutions exam, we want to provide you with activities and approaches to scaffold student understanding and performance.We are focussing on:Using 3 or 4 points style questionsThe ‘D’ questions – Historians’ viewsEveryday classroom activities to encourage analysis
3 AnalysisStudents are thinking critically and analytically – doing history, when they are:Solving problemsIdentifying and selecting relevant evidenceMaking inferencesIdentifying significance & strengths and weaknessesRanking or weighing up the relative importance of ideas, leaders, movements and eventsEvaluating strengths and weaknesses – corroborating, contradicting
4 Balance Our Challenge : Balance See Hand-Out History teachers need to strike the right balance between narrative and analysisNarrative answers (summaries) are low-scoring (at best medium if detailed) and tedious to read ‘pedestrian’But overly analytical responses won’t score in the high range if they are lacking historical precision by way of dates, names, statistics, people, ideas etc. Command of factual knowledge is crucial.One thing is clear, critical thinking and analysis skills must be taught – students won’t develop them in isolation on their own.
5 PART 1: Using 3 or 4 Points Style Questions Scaffolding:The significance of significance!A revolutionary situation?Classification and ranking exercisesHow do I structure these questions?SIGNIFICANCE
6 Boost Student’s Classification Skills In senior history classes students are often required to explain the significance of an event or events, they are also set the task of explaining how events, people or movements contributed to a growing ‘revolutionary situation’First, it is important to build up your student’s understanding of these key terms and phrasesConsider making a class poster under the title ‘What is significance’? & ‘What contributes to a revolutionary situation’?Note: This works well as a think, pair, share brainstorm style activity & can also be represented in a WordCloud
8 “Enhancing students’ and teachers’ ability to assess and articulate claims of historical significance will provide a valuable compass to navigate large amounts of material in meaningful waysDeveloping Teachers’ Ability to Make Claims about Historical Significance. Lee and Coughlin (May 1, 2001)SCAFFOLD IT!By Year 10, History teachers need to move away from ‘what is’ and ‘describe’ type questions in tests and introduce significance.What we do:Year 9: In three points, explain long-term causes of WW1.Year 10: In three or four points explain the significance of the Fall of Singapore in Australia’s changing foreign relations
9 What can be significant? An ideaA political movementPersonGroup of peopleNatural EventProtestImage (Cartoon, Artwork)SpeechBattleWarTreatyPolitical decisionElectionSongSee ‘Criteria of Significance’ Handout
10 What makes something significant? Contributed to a political movementSparked a protestUnified or divided a political movementDivided or unified a protest groupSymbolised discontent or successRallied a group into actionStarted or ended a battle or warSparked a political decisionWas a source of inspirationStarted a new movement/way of thinkingMake a list with your classRegularly complicate and revisit the concept of ‘Significance’
11 What makes something significant? A new idea being introduced or challengedA political movement starting or crumblingA person who instituted or inspired changeA group of people who brought about changeA natural event that sparked a revoltProtests which galvanised a movementAn image (cartoon, artwork, crest, symbol) or song which symbolised a movement or communicated an ideaA battle which was a turning point in a warThe political or social impact of a warA treaty which sparked protest or had dire consequencesA political decision which was a source of angerAn election which saw a shift in the political environmentA speech that inspired change, communicated a new idea or challenged an established orderSee Handout‘Mid Year Exam Revision’
13 What is a ‘revolutionary situation’? Instability in the political system or in a political groupA protest movement growing in strength, cohesion, arms, numbersA revolutionary idea increasing in popularityThe established order or ruling party decreasing in popularityCause for discontent among the citizenry, army or political factionsIncreasingly organised ferment in the citizenry, army or political factionsWhat have I missed?
14 What can contribute to a ‘revolutionary situation’? The effects of a battle or warPoor living conditions, famine, inequalityA new idea challenging established orderCorruption in leadershipWeaknesses of leaders being exposedStrength of opponents being solidifiedAn event/idea/person forms as a rallying pointUnification of oppositionDivision in leadershipStrong leadership of the oppositionIncreasing popularity of revolutionary ideas or unpopularity of ruling partyWhat have I missed?
15 Many students are still not following the structure of Firstly, Secondly, Thirdly - deciding to opt out and take the easy option of simply just writing a general narrative and trying to tie back to the question at the end.Help them to tie each individual point back to ‘contributed to the development of a revolutionary situation’...A revolutionary situation was born because...A revolutionary situation was well underway when...This laid the foundation for further revolt because...This idea/leader/event galvanised the urban workers/bourgeois/privileged estates etc... into action becauseThis idea/leader/movement/event captured the imagination of such and such who went on to....This popularised the notion of...This propelled the revolution forward because...This polarised the court because...This was a turning-point in the revolution because...Such was its power that it inspired commemoration celebrations...This seminal work inspired...Refer to hand-out for samples
16 PART 2: The Dastardly ‘D’s Scaffolding:Everyday activities to enhance engagement and confidence for students of all ages.The importance of rubrics.How do I structure these questions?
17 Analysing Sources Learn to dissect sources by putting them together: Back-to back source analysisGroup Game source AnalysisFreeze-Frame Activities
18 Teaching VCE Historiography The ‘D’ questions: DiscriminatorsSome pitfalls:Students judge Sources to be of little value because the writer ‘was not present’ or is an ‘outsider looking in’Students literally describe/narrate the content.Context is limited to who wrote the sourceEncourage students to avoid the ‘bias’ conversationMake sure students understand the difference between usefulness and reliability
19 The D questions: Method Give them a formula/method: ZOOM IN ZOOM OUT WITH THE 4 C’s.ZOOM IN - It’s all about the documentCHARACTERISE (or Contextualise): BATCH – Bias, Author, Time, Contention, Honesty – Synthesise this into 3 or 4 linesCONTENTION: 1 or 2 linesZOOM OUT – Start bringing in your own knowledge and evidence. Support your analysis with other historians’ views.CORROBORATE ITAND/ORCONTRADICT ITSee Hand-Outs.
20 The Flight to Varennes (June 20th 1791) was a key turning point in compounding a republican movement in France. Overall this document is a reasonable representation of the desacrilisation of the king- a psychological pre-requisite for preparing for a life without him. Historian Matthews asserts that to the radicals this proved that the king could not be trusted and the revolution would “enjoy no stability” while he was on the throne- hence his crown is seen to be “slipping” from his head in the extract. The increasing derision was exacerbated in the Massacre and Champ de Mars (16th July 1791) when symbols of the Monarchy were destroyed and a 30,000 strong crowd demanded a referendum on the King’s fate. Many of the Parisians signed a petition for the abdication of Louis. This dissent, however, that is presented in the document was mainly limited to the people of Paris. Following the event floods of letters from the Catholic provinces reached the National Assembly in support of Bailly and Lafayette’s actions in subduing the crowds. Historian Tackett points out the people started to “consider” a republic indicating that support for a constitutional monarchy was still very much alive. In June 1791 the Jacobins split over members expressing their hope to salvage the monarchy. Short term, it seemed that the conservatives had won when on 13th September the king accepted the 1791 constitution. Student Sample – Study Score 50
21 The D questions - Rubrics You MUST provide a rubric for difficult questions – The most ESSENTIAL CLASSROOM TOOL.Develop your own. Why?Gives you and your students a common ‘analytical’ languageLeads to more targeted process feed-back from the teacher as opposed to praise, criticism, or advice which block progress.When students understand the rubric they can begin to self-regulate.(See Hand-Out)
22 PART 3: Everyday Activities to Enhance Analytical Thinking Scaffolding by:Making PowerPoints ActiveSentence starters and close activitiesVisible ThinkingIDEALS/ Criteria of significanceBetter note-takingOur approach to research SACS.
23 A. Making Power Points Active Beginning & ending your PowerPoint with learning & skill objectives, key questions, summary tables or goals for the lessonAssists students to take notes under key focus points, streamlining the note taking process which can be cumbersomeAllows students to measure their knowledge against the lesson’s objectiveFacilitates a lesson ‘wrap up’ where the class can summarise the information learnt and the teacher can conduct some formative assessment by identifying areas of misunderstanding or any gaps in student knowledgeWhat is your best PowerPoint strategy?What effect does it have?
24 Making Power Points Active ExamplesMaking Power Points Active
25 Key ‘SAC Style’ Questions In three or four points outline the strengths and weaknesses of the Provisional GovernmentORIn three or four points explain why the Provisional Government only lasted 8months
26 WAR COMMUNISM: Complete the following Table COLLECTIVISATIONReasons the policy was adopted (AIMS)Main featuresMeasures taken to enforce the policySuccesses of the policyFailures of the policy (E.g. Human Cost)
27 What caused the February 1917 Revolution? THE QUESTION:What caused the February 1917 Revolution?Decide which were the three or four most significant causes of the February 1917 Revolution.The Tsar’s poor decision making? E.g. to become commander in chief & to respond to disorder with violence?The effects of WWI on the Home Front’s economy, transport system, food supply?The impact of Russia’s defeats in WWI?The mutiny of the army?The formation of a political opposition?The fact that the workers, soldiers, peasants and liberals were united in opposition to the Tsar? Was the growth of this united opposition crucial to the Revolution’s success?Other points…?Mark these as long- and short-term causes or trigger events.Rank these events in order of importanceIn three detailed paragraphs explain why you think the top 3 these are the most significant causes of the revolution.See Hand-out
28 A. Making Power Points Active Keep your students engaged in PowerPoint presentations by constantly presenting them with open ended questions which require judgementChallenge students to identify the main problem or weakness being faced by a group or individual and justify why is it the most important issueAsk students to guess what will happen next and explain why they think this might happenAsk students to identify the primary contributing factor to a movement and support their claim with evidenceWhat is your best questioning strategy?Why do you find it effective?
29 B. Evaluate Sample Answers Annotated and colour coded sample answers can help students to identify the components of high quality workReading though a mid-range response with a critical eye and marking on areas for improvement can help students to identify common mistakes and solutions to these mistakesSee Handout‘Mid Year Exam Revision’
30 TASK 3: Active reading, fill in the details and connectives Firstly, the provisional government was a weak, unpopular and unstable grouping of liberals and other political parties without a united cause. Following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in _____________________ remaining members of the disbanded duma declared themselves the provisional government. The provisional government essentially functioned as a caretaker government, sidled with the difficult tasks of ceasing Russia’s involvement in WWI and organising for the nation’s first democratic elections. The provisional government quickly proved unpopular because of their decision to continue WWI against Germany and launch fresh offensive attacks. This decision served the interest of landowning politicians who made up the majority of the government, ____________, it was unpopular with war weary citizens tired from three long years of _________________________ brought about by war. _____________, the government’s ministers were not united in a single cause but instead drawn together from multiple political parties such as the ____________________________________________ who were preparing to face off against each other in the soon to be formed constituent assembly. _______________, government ministers had little interest in defending this temporary government body. The unpopularity of the provisional government is reflected in the fact that only a unit of cadets and the women’s unit the Amazons defended the Winter Palace from Bolshevik invaders in October This power vacuum opened the door to the Bolshevik’s success in October
31 The Abdication of the Tsar Developing ESSAY Paragraphs
32 GENERAL STATEMENTRasputin’s hold over the Tsarina, and to a lesser extent, the Tsar, made him a dangerous political force that would play a part in the February Revolution.What does the words ‘play a part’ suggest?Why might I include these words?
33 EVIDENCEIn what was perhaps his most foolish decision, the Tsar left his German wife, and effectively Rasputin to run the country when he took personal command of the Russian armed forces in September Eyewitness B Pares observed Rasputin’s hold over the court; ‘We are faced with the strangest of human triangles… Rasputin, the empress and the emperor; set in ascending order of authority and a descending order of influence’. It was Rasputin’s alleged healing power over the heir to the throne, Alexis, which gained him this influence. Of course, it is widely known now that it was Rasputin’s soothing manner with the boy that eased his suffering, not mystical forces. Nevertheless, the neurotic Alexandra fell increasingly under Rasputin's spell, to the increasing concern of liberals and ultra-royalists.What is the function of this word?What is the point of including this information?What does this quote illustrate?
34 ANALYSIS/SIGNIFICANCE The royalist’s concerns regarding Rasputin’s influence were not unfounded. For not only was Rasputin at the center of drunken sexual scandals with aristocratic ladies, but the Tsarina increasingly depended on him for advice in government. In fact, in the sixteen months between the Tsar’s departure for the Russian front and Rasputin’s assassination in December, 1916, Russia had four prime ministers, five ministers of the interior, four ministers of agriculture and three ministers of war. Russia was destabilized and revolutionary conditions forged.What is the function of this sentence?What is the point of including this information?What does this information illustrate?
35 CONCLUSIONThe rapid turnover of officials weakened the government and was a fatal blow to the survival of the monarchy.What is the function of this sentence?
36 C. Explicitly Teach the use of Connective Terms Sequencefirst(ly) initially, second(ly), to begin with then, next earlier, later after, followingAdditional Informationin addition, and, similarly, likewise, as well, besides, further more, also, moreover, and then, too, not only, for example, for instanceConsequenceas a result, thus, therefore, consequently, it follows that, thereby eventuallyContrastHowever, on the other hand, despite, in spite of, though, although, on the contrary, otherwise, rather, whereas, nonetheless, even though, compared with, in contrast, alternatively, similarly, in contrast, unlike, althoughSummarise & ResultsOverall, this demonstrated, above all, consequently, finally, thereforeWhat is the most effective technique you have usedto improve student’s use of connective terms?
37 Explicitly Teaching the use of Connective Terms ExampleExplicitly Teaching the use of Connective Terms
38 STUDENT TASK 6:Turn this information into a paragraph which presents an argument.Use at least four connective terms to structure and advance your argument.In your annotation explain why you have used each connective term.When Lenin returned to Petrograd April 1917 and issued his April Thesis. Lenin’s message came as a shock, even to the Bolshevik Party – Lenin denounced cooperation with the Provisional Government: as a ‘parliamentary bourgeois’. He demanded an end to the ‘Imperialist war’ (WWI), nationalisation of banks and distribution of land to the peasantry. Lenin developed two powerful slogans: ‘Peace, land & bread’ and ‘All Power to the Soviets’. Lenin saw the time for Revolution was ripe – ‘History will not forgive us if we don’t assume power now’. 24th Oct – Trotsky’s Red Guards take control of post-offices, bridges, bank – basically key vantage points. 25th Oct – The Red Guards ‘Stormed’ Winter Palace. 26th Oct –Petrograd Soviet announces the ‘Provisional Government has been overthrown. Well timed.See Handout‘Mid Year Exam Revision’
39 D. Explicitly Teach Key Terms Analyse: Identify components and the relationship between themCritically Analyse: Add a degree or level of accuracy depth, knowledge and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and quality to your analysisCompare: Show how things are similar or differentDefine: State meaning and identify essential qualitiesIdentify: Recognise and nameJustify: Support an argument or conclusion with evidenceSummarise: Express, concisely, the relevant detailsSynthesise: Putting together various elements to make a whole
40 Example ActivitySet students the task of explaining the difference between two key termsGroups are given a written document, different groups are set the task of completing one or two questions or task from each category.E.g. One group is to analyse, another to summariseCompare the results and challenge students to explain the steps they took to undertake their task
41 E. Use sentence starters to increase detail and judgement In _______(date) ________ (person or group) began/ introduced ______________ (policy or change) which _________________ (what changed exactly ?). Importantly, _______’s decision to ________ (key action) had the effect of ________________________________________.____________(event) in _________ (date) demonstrated the ___________.____________(event) in _________ (date) is an example of _________.____________ (factor) contributed to __________ (movement) by _________________ (influence/effect). For example in ___________(date) _______________(leader or group/s) such as ___________________(specific example) ______________________ (key event or example) which had the effect of _________________________________.E.g. The Kronstadt uprising in March 1921 demonstrated the increasing resentment of the working class to Lenin’s harsh and restrictive economic policy of War Communism.
42 F. Everyday Analytical Classroom Activities Harvard Project Zero Thinking Routines to make thinking ‘visible’E.g.Headlines RoutineTrue for Who?Tug For Truth
43 Headlines Routine Before you leave – choose two students: If we were to write a headline for this topic right now - one that captured the most important aspect that should be remembered, what would it be?See Handout ‘The 1905 Revolution’
44 True for Who? 1. Choose a controversial claim: Terror was a sacred transaction in which the foundation of values required the death of men – Sophie Wahnich2. Brainstorm: make a list of all the viewpoints we could look at this claim from3. Dramatise – Dramatically speak from that point of you:My view isThis claim is true/false/uncertainI may change my mind if4. Reflect: Step out of your role. Have you any questions for anyone in the group?
45 Mini Research Projects using the IDEALS method Identify the problemDefine the Context – what are the facts which frame this question?Enumerate the Choices – What are the options?Analyse the Options – What is the Best Course of Action?List your reasons explicitly and signpost your arguments.Self-correct – Is there anything we have missed? Any further information we need?E.g.What are the Top 3 turning points in the story of the revolution so far?To what extent do individuals pervert the course of revolution?Why didn’t the Allies bomb Aushwitz-Birkenau?How did such a civilised nation produce such a violent regime?Why are women vilified in History?
46 G. Help students take good notes... Study cardsEpisode Charts (DOL)Scaffolding – Our approach to research assignments/SACS...See Handout
47 Louis and the moderates in real danger Headings=Red. Dates=Green. Other facts (people, policies, places) =BlueQuotes=Purple and Significance rankedBrunswick Manifesto25th July 1792Commander of Austrian forces Duke of Brunswick threatens Parisians of an “ever memorable vengeance” should any harm come to Louis or the royal familySignificanceCrystallises all existing, generalised fears into a specific, tangible fear that the king is involved in a gigantic conspiracyLouis and the moderates in real dangerBy early August THE ENEMY IS NOW 160KM FROM PARIS
48 Other IdeasTables - get students to create 3 columns in their workbooks.Details of EventSignificanceHistoriography