Presentation on theme: "France AOS 2: Creating a new society Preparing your students for SAC 2"— Presentation transcript:
1 France AOS 2: Creating a new society Preparing your students for SAC 2 Luke CashmanPenleigh & Essendon Grammar School
2 Purpose of today’s talk What tasks can you set for the SAC?Which task should you set?Writing the SAC and conditions to setApproaching certain types of questions.Engaging with the historiographyPractice topics.Sample responses.Criteria sheets and grading SACs.General hints & tips for teachers & students.
3 Options for Revs SACsAnalysis of visual and written primary source documentsArgumentative EssayResearch ReportHistoriographical exercisesTeachers may choose the order of the assessment tasksSource: VCE History Study Design (October, 2009), p135They can be done in any order but this is the sequence I do…
4 Points to consider when choosing the task The VCAA examination:Section A – Short answer questions (x2); document analysisSection B – Document analysis; Argumentative essayAdvice for students - Two options:Decide during reading time based on questions and documentsDecide at some stage during the year (the earlier the better)The key to the exam: France AOS 2 -- document or essay? [see past exams]The nature of the task dictates (to an extent) how students prepareReduces students’ preparation load prior to the examIf students prepare diligently, questions and unseen documents should not worry themDecide early in the year so preparation time can be used more efficientlyI ask my students to strongly consider addressing France in Section BIf students have prepared thoroughly then the questions and documents (unseen or otherwise) should not concern them undulyThe document in Section A and B can be written or visual; primary or secondaryShow them the relevant sections of the exam from 2010 and 2011
5 General tips for setting the Argumentative essay* The question:A relevant quote or statementThe question itselfTag: Use evidence to support your answer.The conditions:Time: 55 minutesReading time?Number of questions (1, 2 or 3 choices?)Seen or unseen?Cheat sheet or not?Word length: 600 ~ 800 wordsThis structure of question (quote/statement, question, tag) has been used since 2009
6 Types of questions Aims and goals Crisis and response Change and continuityCan focus on any or all of:PoliticsSocietyEconomics
7 Aims and goals IWho were the revolutionaries (social group; political club; branch of government?)What did the revolutionaries want to achieve? Hampson emphasises the ‘limited aspirations and achievements of the revolutionaries’ (p250).What documents, laws or acts do we have as evidence?How and why did the revolutionaries fall short of these goals?Response to a desperate situation? (Soboul; Doyle; McPhee; Furet & Richet)?The essence of revolution? (Schama; Furet)Were the original aims & goals re-established within the timeframe of the Study Design?Who were the revolutionaries? The bourgeoisie, so it’s their goals we’re talking about.
8 Aims and goals II Possible essay structure: Alternatively: Moderate phase (1789 – 1792)Radical phase (1792 – 1794)Return to moderate phase (1794 – 1795)Alternatively:Political aims and goalsSocial aims and goals (including the Terror)Economic aims and goals
9 Crisis and response I General considerations: Who were the revolutionaries?What challenges did the revolutionaries face?How did the revolutionaries respond to those challenges?Were those responses in proportion to the challenges?Was the use of revolutionary violence and the establishment of a dictatorship justified? (Marxists vs Revisionists)Soboul: ‘The Terror had struck a devastating blow at the old society, destroying it and clearing the ground for the emergence of new social relationships.’ (p124)Also consider Doyle’s remark on the French Revolution being a tragedy after you discuss Soboul’s POV
10 Crisis and response IIWho instigated the Terror: the sans culottes, the Jacobins or Robespierre (dictateur sanguinaire)?Furet & Richet: “The bourgeoisie… was now compelled by the mobs to adopt terrorist policies.” (p184)Was Terror and dictatorship the essence of Revolution or a response to circumstances?‘Violence was the motor of the revolution.’ (Schama, p859)‘The force of circumstances may lead us to things we had not expected.’ Saint-Just, quoted in Furet and Richet, p185.
11 Counter-Revolution and the Terror: Time & Place Source: Michael Adcock, Analysing the French Revolution 2nd ed., Melbourne: CUP, 2009, p172.
12 Crisis and response III Structure: Military, political, social/economic Crises/challenges/obstacles: a. Political crises (Louis XVI; army generals; the Girondin deputies; the Jacobin deputies) b. Military crises (foreign – Austrians; the Prussians; the War of the First Coalition; civil – the Federalist Revolt and the Vendée) c. Social crises (the sans culottes; the peasantry; the aristocracy) d. Economic crises (the assignant; inflation; bread prices)Social and economic crises can (and probably should) be included together as they are so tightly bound
13 Crisis and response IVResponses/reactions: a. Political responses: Laws of Suspects and Prairial; The execution of Louis XVI and other political opponents; the Great Terror b. Military responses: The CPS; Revolutionary Tribunals; surveillance committees; representatives on mission; atrocities in the provinces; the levée en masse c. Social responses: Centralisation – the Law of Frimaire d. Economic responses: Laws of Maximum; laws against hoarding; the armée revolutionnaireSocial and economic crises can (and probably should) be included together as they are so tightly bound
14 Change and continuity I Did France undergo significant and positive change as a result of the revolution? If so, in what areas and to what degree? [maximalists]McPhee: “Life could never be the same again”. (p202)Did the Revolution bring no change other than disruption and disaster? [minimalists]Doyle: “The French Revolution is… in every sense a tragedy.” (p425)Schama: “[the] obvious rupture [of the Revolution] disguises a continuity of some importance.” (p854)Note: Don’t assume that the aristocracy were the big losers of the revolution
15 Change and continuity II “For years it has been customary to regard the French Revolution as the decisive turning-point of modern European history… Recently, however, there has been a tendency to deny it any such paramount significance.” (Hampson, p249).The Revolution “constituted no more than a modification of the previous distribution [of land and power] and perhaps an acceleration of trends already present under the ancien régime.” (Hampson, p254)
16 Change and continuity III Did Revolutionary France get worse than the regime it replaced before before it got better?Possible structure:Political: “[T]he October Days of 1789 signified the end of divine right absolutism.” (Hampson, p256)SocialEconomicOR: Moderate Phase; Radical Phase; Return to moderationNote: Don’t assume that the aristocracy were the big losers of the revolution
17 Change and continuity IV Was life better for the French by 1795?“The transfer of property brought about by the Revolution was also far less radical…” (Hampson, p251)Who gained and who lost as a result of the French Revolution?AristocracyBourgeoisie: ‘The Revolution was their triumph.’ (McPhee, p196)Urban workers/sans culottes: Doyle: ‘They had no gains to show… for all the upheaval and disruption.’ (p407)PeasantsThe poor and needyNote: Don’t assume that the aristocracy were the big losers of the revolution
18 Change and continuity V Social group% of pop pre-1789% of total killed during the TerrorClergy0.66.5Aristocracy0.48.2Bourgeoisiebtw 2 – 824.5Sans culottes631Peasantry8528Unknownn/a1.8Note: Don’t assume that the aristocracy were the big losers of the revolutionBe cautious when using statisticsAdapted from Fenwick & Anderson, Liberating France, Collingwood: HTAV, 2010, pp20 & 206.
19 Change and continuity VI McPhee: ‘[While] every noble family was directly affected by emigration, imprisonment or death… the Revolution was hardly a holocaust of nobles.’ (p184)Schama: ‘The Revolution had been but a brutal through mercifully ephemeral interruption of their [the aristocracy]social institutional power.’ (p856)Furet & Richet: ‘The sans culottes were to suffer just as much as the aristocrats from the Convention’s repressive measures.’ (p184)Norman Hampson: “The sans-culottes has been reduced to impotence…” (p245)Note: Don’t assume that the aristocracy were the big losers of the revolution
20 VCAA Criteria for Outcome 2* Knowledge of the contribution of ideologies, individuals and groups in the creation of the new society.Knowledge and analysis of the challenges faced by revolutionary individuals, groups, governments or parties and their responses.Evaluation of the nature of society created by the revolution and the changes and continuities that it brought about.Analysis and evaluation of evidence that synthesises a range of written and visual sources to draw conclusions.Analysis and evaluation of historians’ interpretations.Source: VCE History: Revolutions Assessment Handbook 2005 – 2014.These are quite tricky to use when grading a students’ essay in response to certain questionsI fiddle with them and write topic specific criteria sheets. The students will meet the other outcomesNot covered in the SAC topic via their work throughout the AOS.
21 Assessing SAC 2Sample responses in the Assessor’s Report are a good way to gauge the relative performance of your studentsAgainst the criteria in a rubric or a “general sense”?Ask students for permission to copy & distribute good samples*Best samples are those done under exam conditionsAvoid using current students’ work if possible; anonymousType up if possible; warts and allHave students “grade” samples and justify their decision (good empathy exercise)The tendency is for teachers to mark the SACs too easily; their SAC results then get dragged down substantially by the exam result*After the first dot point, see next slide
22 Useful resources The following are good sources for exam questions: Past VCAA exams and sample examsHTAV examsInsight examsQATs
23 General hints and tips I Think about what you want your students to write: how can they best demonstrate their knowledge and understanding of the Revolution?Attempt the task yourself first (in full or point form)For students:Neat hand-writing (legible)Be succinct and fluent (to the point, understandable and enjoyable!!!)Answer the question – focus on key words (RUUP)Use signposting (eg firstly, secondly, thirdly, however, on the other hand etc)*Use reading time well (if given); also thinking time
24 General hints and tips II For students:Be time-aware and time-disciplined in the SACGet used to the layout and format of the SACGenuine practice tasks completed under examination conditions (e.g. time)For practice: Encourage students to write their own, swap & answer in full, point form or just an introUse specific facts and informationAvoid vague remarks like: “met the needs of the people” or “made the French happy” or “everybody hated the Terror”.Make grids of the three question types and complete with the relevant information (group task)See my grids (full and blank templates
25 General hints and tips III For students:If you use extra writing space, indicate this and the question being continued CLEARLYKnow the chronology of key events and datesUnderstand the chain of cause and effectBe able to work backwards from an event so you can discuss causesUse all the lines given but know when to stopSpeak to your teacher as often as possibleRead, read, read & write, write, write
26 Writing essays in the exam* Only 30 minutes availableApproximately 500 wordsVery short intro and conclusion – one to two sentences eachClear statement of contentionStrong topic sentencesPlenty of evidence (facts, events, dates, names, laws etc)Precise, relevant and succinctHistorians’ views not required
27 BibliographyWilliam Doyle, The Oxford History of the French Revolution, Oxford: OUP, 2002.Jill Fenwick & Judy Anderson, Liberating France, Collingwood: HTAV, 2010.François Furet and Denis Richet, The French Revolution, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970.François Furet, The French Revolution 1770 – 1814, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996 .Norman Hampson, A Social History of the French Revolution, London: Routledge & Keegan Paul, .Peter McPhee, The French Revolution 1789 – 1799, Oxford: OUP, 2002.Simon Schama, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution, New York: Random House, 1990.Albert Soboul, A Short History of the French Revolution 1789 – 1799, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965.