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When Humanities and Literacy Collide Kate Crowhurst HTAV Middle Years Conference 28.10.11 Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11.

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Presentation on theme: "When Humanities and Literacy Collide Kate Crowhurst HTAV Middle Years Conference 28.10.11 Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11."— Presentation transcript:

1 When Humanities and Literacy Collide Kate Crowhurst HTAV Middle Years Conference 28.10.11 Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

2 Why is Literacy Important? Access content Understand ideas/concepts Express own ideas Share ideas with others Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

3 Map of Global Literacy Relevance to your classroom Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

4 Connection to History Access history content – key events, Understand key events, perspectives of the past Express own point of view on past events such as the impact of key events like WWI on people at the time Share their ideas through written essays and organise their thoughts in projects or oral presentations Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

5 Different Literacy Levels & Needs LowMiddle (At Level) High Language support May lack confidence in expressing ideas to class Hesitant to write lots of information (handwriting, spelling) Need additional, sometimes one-one-one support to complete tasks Can complete tasks with structure and teacher guidance/support Need to add more detail to their ideas – do not fully explain what they say They have the ideas but need support to organise their thinking Need to be challenged in their learning Often complete tasks quickly without needing teacher support/guidance Capable of managing own learning with independent tasks (often needs these to stay motivated/challenged) Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

6 Catering to Student Diversity Where is the student at in terms of their literacy abilities? Prior knowledge of content and concepts Diagnose literacy level - from observations/student work or formal testing of literacy (see below or student English results and progress) Refer to Department frameworks: – VELS (OnDemand testing data) – NAPLAN data (Writing, reading, speaking and listening abilities) – Rubrics of student performance – ESL Developmental Continuum Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

7 Low Literacy Know your students’ backgrounds – ESL (English as a Second Language) – D&I (Disability and Integration) Strategy: – Heavily structured – Emphasis on vocabulary – so they become more confident in expressing their ideas – Start with students’ prior knowledge check – Make connections to their experiences (personalise learning) – Model what is expected to scaffold students’ abilities Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

8 Low Literacy Activities: – True/False – Word searches – Videos (Horrible Histories) – Visuals – Cloze exercises – Role-plays – Hands on activities (word jumbles) – Highlight keywords as read through an article – Synonyms/Antonyms for Keywords (Academic Vocabulary Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

9 Low Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice Example of teaching World War I (WWI) concepts/content Teaching Context: At start of topic Start with word splash (incorporating key ideas/content so students can make predictions) – Keep word number short – Synonyms/Antonyms/use in a sentence – All together in a concept/content prediction of article/topic Alliances WorldWar ConflictDestructionMillions Great Struggle Europe Powers Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

10 Low Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice Use visuals so students can visualise the places talked about – Prior knowledge of locations – Make connections between their experiences and the topic (ESL in particular) When using locations get students to make connections to locations on maps they know first: -Where is Australia? - Where is your birth country? - Where is your favourite singer from? Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

11 Low Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice Use visuals so students can visualise the places talked about – Prior knowledge of locations – Make connections between their experiences and the topic (ESL in particular) Take the main location and compare maps of today/at time of study (1914): -What countries do you know on the maps? - Which map is Europe today? - Why is one map multi- coloured and the other map in only 3 colours? Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

12 Low Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice Read article together as a class (reading aloud strategy) Bold the keywords from the word splash (used in context) Students comfortable using the words can summarise the article in 1-2 sentences – Need to be supported in this through teacher modelling, scaffolding them to use summarising skill independently Wars have happened throughout history but strong alliances led to a war that affected the whole world. World War I (1914-1918) was a turning point in history. No other conflict matched the terrible destruction of World War I. Millions of people died, often in battles that didn’t seem to have any winners or losers – only dead and wounded. At the time World War I was known as “the Great War”. It was a struggle between Europe’s great powers. On one side were the Central powers (led by Germany Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Turkish Empire). On the other side were the Allied Powers (led by the British Empire, France, Belgium, Russia, Italy and America). Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

13 Middle Literacy Know your students’ backgrounds: – Are they motivated in their learning? (Do they read regularly to increase literacy? etc.) – What progress have they made in their literacy (Were they ahead or behind the expected literacy level last year? What are their abilities compared to their peers in the classroom?) Strategy: – Help model to students how to organise their ideas – Enhance their vocabulary (Academic vocabulary) – Support students to regularly use literacy skills such as paraphrasing paragraphs – Explicitly teach literacy skills to students so that they are aware of the strategies they use Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

14 Middle Literacy Activities: – Academic vocabulary work – Graphic organisers – Describing events seen in videos/articles – Synonyms/antonyms of keywords (at a more challenging level than ESL students to add description to writing work) – Reading and using evidence/examples of issues (to use in writing about an issue/idea) Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

15 Middle Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice Example of teaching World War I (WWI) concepts/content Teaching Context: Setting essay task after teaching content/concepts of causes of WWI Start with paraphrasing the essay question (the keywords in the question) “What main causes led to World War 1?” Main – Most important Causes – Reasons Led – Started World War I – First war to involve the world Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

16 Middle Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice CAUSEDESCRIBE (What)EXPLAIN (How/Why) Alliances -What were they called? -Who was in each alliance? -Why did they cause WWI? Imperialism -What is Imperialism? -How would Empires taking over countries cause WWI? Militarism -What is militarism? -How would building up armies/weapons cause WWI? Using graphic organiser to describe and explain ideas Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

17 Middle Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice Students use their ideas in the graphic organiser to sort ideas into order by topic They add detail to their ideas by describing and explaining what they mean This would be a scaffolded task before students independently work on an essay for assessment of their skills (teacher modelling what is expected) Model Paragraph: The alliances were one cause of WWI. These were the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and the Ottoman Empire on one side and the Triple Entente of the British Empire, France and Russia on the other side. The alliances created two sides of many powerful countries which were all itching for a fight. Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

18 High Literacy Know your students’ backgrounds – Have they always been above the expected level? – Does their class behaviour conform with what you would expect from their literacy level? – Are they currently being challenged? Strategy: – Inquiry-based learning (Making inquiries, direct own learning) – Enhance vocabulary knowledge with higher-level content – Independent learning tasks (with direction) on issues within a topic for student investigation – Take leadership role in teaching practice (modelling thinking processes to other students) Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

19 High Literacy Activities: – Research issues within a topic – Given evidence on different perspectives in a topic (compare/contrast these) – Inquiry-based learning tasks with some directions (Eg. Websites to access information, goal of research, format of report) – Organise an excursion for the class (with teacher input/direction) – Use vocabulary from Year 11/12 content or exam questions so can practise using task phrases (Explain, analyse, compare and contrast) Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

20 High Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice Example of teaching World War I (WWI) concepts/content Teaching Context: Teaching after the war issues Students given research report task on returning soldiers. The goal of the report is to find out what happened to soldiers returning to Australia from WWI Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

21 High Literacy – Teaching Strategy in Practice Students are provided with teacher modelling in: – Report structure – Goals of report Websites with relevant information Textbooks available in library with relevant information Teachers within school/contacts in local area with relatives who fought in WWI Students are given this project as a task over several lessons, reporting progress to teacher and peers (Modelling organisation and thinking processes to peers) Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

22 Catering to Student Diversity in Literacy Levels Differentiation is supporting each student to achieve a set learning goal – At their level – Shown in independent practice You can differentiate by Support (More teacher support to lower literacy students) Task (Different tasks) Outcomes (Open-ended tasks) Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

23 Differentiation in Teaching Practice A key way to cater to the literacy abilities of all students is through an explicit teaching approach This is in line with the Explicit Instructional Model (John Hattie) It provides for a set learning goal, teaching of key content/concepts, guided practice of the tasks by students before students independently practice their use of the content/concepts and then review this as a class Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

24 Differentiation in Teaching Practice In action – The Explicit Instructional Model Phase of LessonEssential Elements 1Beginning of Lesson The Hook Stimulate interest, show learning purpose Video of alliances/Images of Alliances Learning Intentions Establish learning goals and write on board/display On board: Students able to explain what is meant by an alliance Activate/Review Connect to ss prior learning and knowledge Review: When have you seen alliance before? 2Presentation Teacher input – Teach concept Definitions, examples, teach vocabulary Teach definition of alliance An alliance is a partnership where people support each other and assist one another when needed A person in an alliance with you is called your ally. Someone who attacks your ally is your enemy. Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

25 Differentiation in Teaching Practice In action – The Explicit Instructional Model 2Presentation Teacher input – Teach concept Definitions, examples, teach vocabulary Teach definition of alliance An alliance is a partnership where people support each other and assist one another when needed A person in an alliance with you is called your ally. Someone who attacks your ally is your enemy. Teacher input – Teach and model the skill List of synonyms and antonyms Synonyms: Gang, coalition, union, pact, deal, partnership, bond, link, grouping Anonym: Separation, divorce, alone, disunion, no deal, individual Check for understanding SS paraphrase and summarise Contribute to synonyms/antonyms Summarise information in their books 3Guided Practice Development and Engagement Tasks/activities with well- scaffolded opportunity for ss to apply skill/knowledge Teacher models the alliance circle task (purpose and what is expected of students) Students complete their own alliance circles (own experiences create meaning) – set 10min Feedback and Individual Support Teacher identifies ss needing support/guided practice Students instructed to get into partners and explain their circles to each other Share what they thought of the task with teacher Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

26 Differentiation in Teaching Practice In action – The Explicit Instructional Model 4Independent Practice Application SS apply concept/skill in different contexts, can be homework/individual/group- work Students stick their alliance circles in their books. They then combine ideas with another group to extend the concepts in their alliance circle (done in a different colour to original ideas) Extension is prediction question: What would happen if two countries, both with different allies got into a fight with each other? – Students write prediction in books 5Review Reinforce major points of lesson, ss feedback on what and how they’ve learned Students all given 2 post its – on one they write something they learned, on the other they write something they want to know more about – Students must stick these on the board on their way out as their exit pass Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

27 Conclusion Catering to student literacy abilities levels in teaching history allows all students to: – Access history content – key events, – Understand key events, perspectives of the past – Express own point of view on past events such as the impact of key events like WWI on people at the time – Share their ideas through written essays and organise their thoughts in projects or oral presentations This can be achieved through diagnosing student literacy levels and catering to these levels each lesson using: – Differentiation – Explicit teaching practice (EIM) Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11

28 When Literacy and History Collide Kate Crowhurst HTAV Middle Years Conference 28.10.11 Contact: 0406 755 979 crowhurst.katherine.e@edumail.vic.gov.au katecrowhurst@hotmail.com Kate Crowhurst, 28.10.11


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