Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B1: The Mitotic Cell Cycle 1.The mitotic phase.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B1: The Mitotic Cell Cycle 1.The mitotic phase."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B1: The Mitotic Cell Cycle 1.The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle: an overview 2. The mitotic spindle distributes chromosomes to daughter cells: a closer look

2 The mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle alternates with the much longer interphase. The M phase includes mitosis and cytokinesis. Interphase accounts for 90% of the cell cycle. 1. The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle: an overview Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.4

3 During interphase the cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles, copies its chromosomes, and prepares for cell division. Interphase has three subphases: The G 1 phase (first gap) centered on growth. The S phase (synthesis) when the chromosomes are copied. The G 2 phase (second gap) where the cell completes preparations for cell division. And then the cell divides (M). The daughter cells may then repeat the cycle. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

4 Mitosis is a continuum of changes. For description, mitosis is usually broken into five subphases: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

5 By late interphase, the chromosomes have been duplicated but are loosely packed. The centrosomes have been duplicated and begin to organize microtubules into an aster (star). Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.5a

6 In prophase, the chromosomes are tightly coiled, with sister chromatids joined together. The nucleoli disappear. The mitotic spindle begins to form and appears to push the centrosomes away from each other toward opposite ends (poles) of the cell. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.5b

7 During prometaphase, the nuclear envelope fragments and microtubules from the spindle interact with the chromosomes. Microtubules from one pole attach to one of two kinetochores, special regions of the centromere, while microtubules from the other pole attach to the other kinetochore. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.5c

8 The spindle fibers push the sister chromatids until they are all arranged at the metaphase plate, an imaginary plane equidistant between the poles, defining metaphase. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.5d

9 At anaphase, the centromeres divide, separating the sister chromatids. Each is now pulled toward the pole to which it is attached by spindle fibers. By the end, the two poles have equivalent collections of chromosomes. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.5e

10 At telophase, the cell continues to elongate as free spindle fibers from each centrosome push off each other. Two nuclei begin to form, surrounded by the fragments of the parents nuclear envelope. Chromatin becomes less tightly coiled. Cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm, begins. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.5f

11 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig left

12 Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig right

13 The mitotic spindle, fibers composed of microtubules and associated proteins, is a major driving force in mitosis. As the spindle assembles during prophase, the elements come from partial disassembly of the cytoskeleton. The spindle fibers elongate by incorporating more subunits of the protein tubulin. 2. The mitotic spindle distributes chromosomes to daughter cells: a closer look Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

14 Assembly of the spindle microtubules starts in the centrosome. The centrosome (microtubule-organizing center) of animals has a pair of centrioles at the center, but the function of the centrioles is somewhat undefined. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.6a

15 As mitosis starts, the two centrosomes are located near the nucleus. As the spindle fibers grow from them, the centrioles are pushed apart. By the end of prometaphase they develop as the spindle poles at opposite ends of the cell. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

16 Each sister chromatid has a kinetochore of proteins and chromosomal DNA at the centromere. The kinetochores of the joined sister chromatids face in opposite directions. During prometaphase, some spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.6b

17 When a chromosomes kinetochore is captured by microtubules, the chromosome moves toward the pole from which those microtubules come. When microtubules attach to the other pole, this movement stops and a tug-of-war ensues. Eventually, the chromosome settles midway between the two poles of the cell, the metaphase plate. Other microtubules from opposite poles interact as well, elongating the cell. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

18 One hypothesis for the movement of chromosomes in anaphase is that motor proteins at the kinetochore walk the attached chromosome along the microtubule toward the opposite pole. The excess microtubule sections depolymerize. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.7a

19 Experiments support the hypothesis that spindle fibers shorten during anaphase from the end attached to the chromosome, not the centrosome. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fig. 12.7b

20 Nonkinetichore microtubules are responsible for lengthening the cell along the axis defined by the poles. These microtubules interdigitate across the metaphase plate. During anaphase motor proteins push microtubules from opposite sides away from each other. At the same time, the addition of new tubulin monomers extends their length. Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Download ppt "CHAPTER 12 THE CELL CYCLE Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Section B1: The Mitotic Cell Cycle 1.The mitotic phase."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google