Presentation on theme: "Lab Portfolio Formatting Topics – Expt. Design. The IB Portfolio The IB portfolio includes evidence for all laboratory work sessions: 40 hours SL or 60."— Presentation transcript:
Lab Portfolio Formatting Topics – Expt. Design
The IB Portfolio The IB portfolio includes evidence for all laboratory work sessions: 40 hours SL or 60 hours HL. a) All lab work b) problem solving c) dry labs d) formal labs e) partial labs
FORMAT Word process (1.5 space) Times new roman 11 point font Microsoft Excel for: Graphs, tables, statistics Word can do tables if you have trouble Include in your portfolio: lab handouts, instructions, notes, log of lab activities, write- ups.
Quick Tips Treat each lab as practice for the internal assessment Maximize use of time in class Turn in only COMPLETE labs Always think about what your results actually mean The process is just as important as the end product. REMEMBER TO KEEP YOUR PORTFOLIO UP TO DATE – QUARTERLY NOTEBOOK CHECKS !!
IB Internal Assessment Internal Assessment consists of 2 complete labs (Bio = 1 full and 2 partials, Enviro = 4 partials) You will complete 2 required labs with an option of a 3 rd (science fair) Internal Assessment is 23% of your final IB Biology or IB Environmental score Remember: You have full control over this portion of your IB test score
Use the following as a format guide for your IA Remember: Samples will differ slightly from this format Everything underlined here should appear as an underlined heading in your lab – Refer to the hand out for reference
NameSchool Class / PeriodDates planning Lab Partners execution Use a meaningful, descriptive title of your own creation
IBES IA #1 Running title: What is the effect of some factor on some aspect of the environment? Factor can be natural or anthropogenic
Background *Information that lead to your question *Information that lead to your question *Background info and Observations *Include at least two parenthetical references e.g. (Campbell, p. 245) or (Platt, 2001) *Must have enough info to support problem and hypothesis *FUNNEL THE READER INTO YOUR EXPERIMENT (1/2 page maximum)
Design Problem: Frequently a question What is the effect of ___________ on __________? e.g. What is the effect of seasonal changes in rainfall on the reproduction of tree frogs?
Aspects of the Environment Brainstorm: Period 1 BiodiversityCuban Tree Frog colors Waterway health, conditions etcMountain building / land features Worm PredatorsTurtle shell density / patterns Urban developmentKangaroo pouch volume Weather StabilityHoney badger migration Global WarmingMalnutrition Nuclear waste disposalIce cap volume, area Beaver Dam numberssnake shedding schedule Increase in CO2Increased water levels, sea levels Whale MigrationsAustralian wind patterns Giraffe Reproductioncloud density or formations Land pollution, degradationspecies depletion Bird populations / diversitysize of raindrops Nonnative species / Invasive speciesdevelopment of alternative energies Forest Areayellowstone deer populations, species diversity Deforestationhuman reproduction rates Gopher Populationspread of disease / eboila / Soil – volume, nutrients, pH, global food supply Coral Reefs Resources / depletion Squirrel Diet Overpopulation / Human population Ozone Volume Fish Population
Aspects of the Environment Brainstorm: Period 2 Rainforests – area, health, productivity BiodiversityNational Parks Ozone volumeMarine life, Oceans Animal speciesAmount of space Global food supplyPopulation growth Water qualityQuality of food Standard of livingDeath rates, AgricultureGenetics Depletion of resources Ice shelves – area, thickness,
Aspects of the Environment Brainstorm: Period 3 Polar ice caps – size, thickness Populations of species Habitats, Ecosystems Plant growth Poison dart frogs Biomass Yellow Squirrel banana paw paw populations Migration patterns Reproduction Species mutations Humidity Rate of erosion Food production
Factors that could have an effect: Period 1 Anthropogenic OverfishingEcotourism Oil spills Human life span CFCsPollution Nickel mining african children Human population Burning fossil fuels RecessionMalnutrition Mercury in waterways Species depletion North Koreen nuclear proliferation Medical discoveries Biomagnification Photochemical smog Coal mining in west virginia Gold mining in colorado WarEutrophication Natural UV radiation Hurricanes, earthquakes, Shark attacks in a year volcanoes volcanoesRain
Factors that could have an effect: Period 2 Anthropogenic CO2 emissions CFCs Pesticides / runoff Methane gas Beach erosion Whale hunting Nuclear waste Population growth Deforestation Cows in India Food waste EcotourismEutrophication Natural Beach erosion Wildfires Hurricanes (specific or general) Earthquakes Volcanic ash Population growth
Factors that could have an effect: Period 3 Anthropogenic Acid rain PollutionDeforestationPopulationEutrophication Food supply Cetacean Slaughter Greenhouse Waste production Species depletion Coral Bleaching Radiation Tragedy of the Commons – Ozone depletion Natural TemperaturePrecipitationPHDO Ocean currents Natural Disasters Sunlight – Insolation UV radiation Albedo effect
Hypothesis: Based on preliminary info Be as quantitative as possible State as If…Then… & Because e.g. If there is less than 20 cm of rain in a particular season then tree frogs will not reproduce. This will happen because 20cm of rainfall is the minimum to leave standing water in pools for the eggs to float.
Variables (list them as follows) Independent variable = Parts of the experiment that the scientist changes = e.g. amount of rainfall frogs receive Dependent variable = Variable that is being measured (its changes are measured) and how it is measured = e.g. size of eggs produced (measured in cm with calipers) Controlled variable = What is kept the same throughout the experiment – include as many as possible & be sure you explain how and why here = e.g. temp, food supply, age, time of year, etc …
Materials must be a COMPLETE list must be a COMPLETE list with an explanation of how each item is used in the experiment with an explanation of how each item is used in the experiment Be specifics on sizes, concentrations, etc. Be specifics on sizes, concentrations, etc. (include safety equipment) (include safety equipment)
Experimental Set up Photographs with labels showing ongoing experiment with all apparatus including safety equipment A drawing is acceptable if it is detailed and complete
Procedures: numbered steps – complete enough to be replicated exactly by another person Include replications Must include method of data analysis, technology used and tests completed Safety: steps taken for safety in the lab e.g.
Data Collection and Processing All results should stand alone Raw Data Table organize in excel or word chart with lines sig. figs., labels, replicates, units, titles, uncertainties Raw Data Graph typically a bar graph showing individual measurements – remember title, axis labels, units, scale, Observations qualitative observations made during experiment
Data Processing Overview – explains how you will analyze the data (T-test – 1 or 2 tailed - or Linear regression) –Explains why you chose that test Calculations –Sample calculations for each manipulation you do of the raw data –Minimum will include – mean, standard deviation, T- test or Linear regression –Include formula with your #s plugged in – if repetitive may include … –Need even if using excel or calculator for it
Presentation Another 2 tables – Another 2 tables – 1.descriptive stats (mean, med. mode), Standard Deviation, other stats, etc. 2.Statistical test results T-test = df, T value, p value T-test = df, T value, p value Linear Regression = df, critical r value, r value Linear Regression = df, critical r value, r value must be your own presentation not an excel output tablemust be your own presentation not an excel output table Graph correct type (bar graph for T-test, scatterplot with trendline for Linear Regression) Graph correct type (bar graph for T-test, scatterplot with trendline for Linear Regression) label axes, units, title, central tendency and range label axes, units, title, central tendency and range
Example of graphs
Graphs/Figures Type meaningful title Label axes with units Do 1 representation of raw data Do 2 nd for the transformed data (means with error bars). e.g. Frogs: a) One graph showing pairs of individual frog data (rainfall, eggs per frog) b) One showing Average rainfall (as bar graph) and Average eggs produced (bar graphs) c) One showing scatter plot of X (rainfall) and Y (eggs) plots with trend line, r value, linear equation
Conclusion (Discussion for IBES) (must have 3 things) (about 1/2 page) 1. Compare results to initial hypothesis – Were you right or wrong? 2. Restate numerical information important to your conclusion – graphs and stats info What do your results show or mean? WHY did the expt. turn out the way it did? 3. You must include a biological explanation for the results you found Citations must be used here as well – what was supposed to happen? Why was yours the same or different (at least 2 references)
IBES - Conclusion ½ Page maximum You need to frame your work in the context of a broader environmental issue –You studied pH in a pond effecting plants in your narrative you need to Talk about acid rain –You studied populations of trees in a forest in your narrative you need to talk about biodiversity
Evaluation (about 1/2 page) Critically evaluate the quality of your data, procedures, etc. Critically evaluate the quality of your data, procedures, etc. Variability? Reliability? Error Sources? Variability? Reliability? Error Sources? You must discuss standard deviation as a numerical estimate of error or variability You must discuss standard deviation as a numerical estimate of error or variability Systematic Error – based on your manipulation Systematic Error – based on your manipulation Random error – nature is variable Random error – nature is variable
Improvements: Suggest improvements for procedures & data collection Suggest improvements for procedures & data collection Must have at least 3 improvements relating to evaluation issues E.g. increased sample size, increased number of replicates, longer sampling times, better controls (same age, gender) etc., better accuracy in measurement. E.g. increased sample size, increased number of replicates, longer sampling times, better controls (same age, gender) etc., better accuracy in measurement. DO NOT design a different experiment (toads, different time of day, food available). Work with what you have started with. DO NOT design a different experiment (toads, different time of day, food available). Work with what you have started with.
Works Cited Minimum of two references – probably 4 Use proper MLA format, refer to handout or reference the internet END OF LABORATORY REPORT
Skills Assessment The following will be assessed by the teacher during the lab activity and from the write-up. It reflects 12/48 points on your final IA grade 1 1 Manipulative skills: Graded Summatively across all labs 6 points total Were all instructions followed? Were procedures carried out efficiently with Proper recording of lab activities? Was everything done in a safe Manner? 2 2 Personal skills: Assessed on Jan 9 th at Group 4 and included everything this activity encompasses 6 points total for this one activity Worked effectively within a team Recognized and encouraged contributions of others Self motivation and perseverance Ethics – honesty, integrity of data, citing of sources Attention to environmental impact
Skills Assessment Automatic Deductions 1 1 Manipulative skills: Safety concerns does not demonstrate proper techniques not recording data during or by the end of the lab period Failure to approach lab activities with due diligence failing to clean up after lab Not analyzing data properly Perpetually late labs Improper citations 2 2 Personal skills / Group 4 Safety concerns Problems with completing activities on time line lack of effort or behavioural issues Any cheating or plagarism will result in a grade of 0 on the entire lab
Did I mention that …
Thoughts on Experimental Design
Designing a Good Experiment 1. Replication – do it enough to show that the result is not a chance occurrence 2. Control & Constants – ensure that you know what is the cause of the effect you see I.V. is the manipulated variable (treatments)
Designing a Good Experiment 3. Data collection – plan for the type of data you want to collect Be precise and meticulous in your collection of data 4. Data analysis – is your result significant? Statistical tests, graphical analysis, what does it actually show (beyond the #s)
Designing a Good Experiment 5.What does it all mean Why did it happen THINK ABOUT THIS, Its your chance to use your knowledge to explain a new phenomenon Dont be afraid to research similar experiments and reference them