Presentation on theme: "THE RESTLESS EARTH Different types of plate boundary :"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE RESTLESS EARTH Different types of plate boundary : destructive (with subduction of ocean crust)collision (when 2 continents collide),constructive (when two plates diverge)conservative – when two plates move alongside each otherHow fold mountains occur when ocean and continental plate meet or when two continents collideHow ocean trenches occur at subduction zones (destructive plate margins)How violent, composite volcanoes occur at destructive plate boundaries (at subduction zonesHow less violent shield volcanoes occur at constructive plate boundariesThe primary and secondary effects of a volcanic eruptionAdvantages and disadvantages of volcanic eruptionsHow volcanic eruptions are monitored and predictedHow people respond to volcanic eruptionsCASE STUDY – MOUNT PINATUBO – CAUSES, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECTS, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS, IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM RESPONSESThe characteristics of super volcanoesLikely effects of an eruptionHow earthquakes occur at destructive, conservative and constructive plate marginsEpicentre, focus, shockwavesRichter scale and Mercalli scaleHow the effects of an earthquake and the responses can vary according to the wealth of the area where they happenCASE STUDY HAITI – CAUSES, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECT, IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM RESPONSES – PREDICTION, PREPARATION AND PROTECTIONCASE STUDY CHILE – CAUSES, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECTS, IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM RESPONSES – PREDICTION, PREPARATION AND PROTECTIONTHE DIFFERENCE IN THE EFFECTS AND RESPONSES TO THESE TWO EARTHQUAKES AND HOW THIS WAS AFFECTED BY WEALTHTsunamis – a secondary effect of earthquakes and how they are causedINDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI 2004 – CAUSE, EFFECTS AND RESPONSES (IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM)
2 WATER ON THE LAND – RIVERS AND FLOODING Erosion: Hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition, corrosionVertical erosion (when the above types of erosion work downwards)Lateral erosion (when the above types of erosion work sideways)Transport:Traction, saltation, suspension, solutionDeposition – river drops its ‘load’ if velocity is reduced – when a flood subsides, on the inside bend of meanders, when water spills over the banks and drops its load to create levees and floodplainsLandforms produced by vertical erosion – waterfalls and gorgesLandforms produced by erosion and deposition – meanders and ox-bow lakes(Meanders – river cliff, slip-off slope/point bar, meander loop, meander neckLandforms produced by deposition – levees and flood plainsDrainage basin terms - watershed, interception, dripflow, evaporation, infiltration, uptake through roots, vegetation storage, transpiration, percolation, surface storage, surface flow, through flow ,ground flowRiver discharge (river flow) – the amount of water passing a point in a given time – usually m²/sec (cumecs)Factors affecting river flow – amount of rainfall, type of rainfall (how heavy it is – heavy or drizzle), whether it is snow or rain etc.), temperature and evaporation, previous weather conditions, rock type, relief (how steep the slopes are),land use (rural or urban, trees etc.)Causes of flooding (REMEMBER – RIVERS WILL FLOOD IF TOO MUCH WATER REACHES THE CHANNEL TOO QUICKLY) –NATURAL FACTORS – prolonged rain and saturated soil, heavy rain (faster than infiltration) , snow melt, rekief – steep slopes, lack of trees and plantsHUMAN FACTORS – removal of trees, building / towns / cities (effect of sloping roofs, gutters, drains, road camber, extra water from homes and businesses, lack of vegetation, impermeable surfacesHard engineering methods to reduce the risk or effects of flooding – dams and reservoirs, straightening – how they work and their advantages and disadvantages (costs and benefits)Soft engineering approaches – flood warning, preparation, flood plain zoning, ‘do nothing’, planting trees, restoring floodplains, permeable building materials. The costs and benefits of theseCASE STUDY – FLOODING IN BANGLADESH – e.g floods – causes, effects and responses / solutionsCASE STUDY – RIVER SEVERN FLOODING, GLOUCESTERSHIRE, 2007 – causes, effects and responses/solutionsBE AWARE OF THE DIFFERENT EFFECTS OF FLOODS IN THESE TWO PLACES AND THE DIFFERENT RESPONSES/SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OF FLOODINGDemand for water is increasing and there are areas of deficit and surplus. There is a need to transfer water from one area to another.CASE STUDY – RESERVOIR – economic, social and environmental issuesThe need for sustainable supplies of water
3 THE COASTAL ZONEWeathering is the breakdown of rocks ‘in situ’ (in the place where they stand. It breaks rocks up so that mass movement and wave erosion can take place.Mechanical weathering is the physical breakdown of rocks . Freeze-thaw actionChemical weathering is the reaction between rock minerals and water/air. The reactions involve chemical change that breaks the rocks down.Mass movement – sliding and slumpingConstructive and destructive wavesErosion – hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition, corrosionTransport – traction, saltation, suspension and solutionLongshore drift is the process by which sediment is moved along the shoreDeposition occurs where waves lose energy / wave energy is dispersed – for example when LSD is happening and the coast changes direction or meets a river mouth, or in bays where wave energy is dispersedConstructive waves cause depositionLandforms of erosion – cliffs and wavecut platforms, bays and headlands, caves, arches and stacks. CASE STUDY – SWANAGE BAY AREALandforms of deposition - beaches, spits and barsCASE STUDY – THE CAUSES OF RAPID COASTAL EROSION ALONG THE HOLDERNESS COAST OF YORKSHIRE – NATURAL AND HUMAN CAUSES. THE IMPACT ON PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENTHard engineering solutions – sea walls, groynes and rock armour – costs and benefitsSoft engineering solutions – beach nourishment, dune regeneration, marsh creation. Managed retreat/’do nothing’ – costs and benefitsCASE STUDY OF THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF COASTAL MANJGEMENT AT HOLDERNESSReasons for rising sea levelsA case study of the economic, social and environmental consequences of coastal flooding – NORFOLK OR BANGLADESHCASE STUDY OF A COASTAL HABITIAT – WINTERTON SAND DUNESTHE PLANTS AND ANIMALS THAT EXIST ON SAND DUNES LIKE WINTERTON – AND WHY THEY INHABIT SAND DUNES. HOW PLANTS ADAPT TO SAND DUNESHOW THE SAND DUNES ARE CONSERVED BUT STILL ALLOW SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE AREA – wooden walkways, fencing damaged areas, replanting of vegetation, public information, warden to monitor trampling/litter/ fire danger etc., several access points to avoid too much trampling in one area
4 CHANGING URBAN ENVIRONMENTS Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and citiesUrban areas grow as result of migration and natural increasePush and pull factorsThe difference between urban growth in MEDCs and LEDCs / NICs (richer and poorer countries) – the different pace and the different reasonsLand use in UK cities – CASE STUDY NORWICHCBDInner city – including old inner city and how inner cities have changedSuburbsRural – urban fringeIssues facing urban areas in richer parts of the world – providing housing, , inner city problems, traffic problems, declining CBDs, ethnic segregationProblems of inner cities + Government strategies from the 1990s in inner citiesHousing solutions –Gathering information about the amount and type of housing that is needed, renovation of existing housing stock, building on brownfield sites, building on greenfield sitesAdvantages and disadvantages of brownfield and greenfield sites.Problems and solutions to traffic problems – CASE STUDIES NORWICH AND LONDON -LONDON – oyster cards, congestion zone, Barclays cycle hire, Barclays cycle routes, Light Docklands RailwayNORWICH – Park and Rides, renovated rail station with bus and cycle links to CBD, new bus terminal, better information on bus routes, improved bus routes and ticket machines, A47 bypass, bus lanes, cycle routes, safer walk to school routes, pedestrianised shopping streetsRevitalising the CBD – CASE STUDY NORWICH –pedestrianised streets, shopping malls, Forum, renovation of the theatre, renovation of the market, development of leisure facilities as well as shopping, redeveloped bus station + improved car parks – better accessCultural mix / Ethnic segregation – causes + solutionsRapid growth of cities in poorer countries – push and pull factorsCharacteristics of squatter settlements – CASE STUDY – KIBERA or ROCINHOHow residents themselves attempt to make improvements – e.g. ROCINHO orSelf –help schemes, Site and Service schemes, Local Authority schemesCASE STUDY OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENT RE-DEVELOPMENT – KIBERA SLUM CLEARANCE ORManagement of environmental problems caused by rapid urbanisation in poorer countries – waste, air and water pollutionCharacteristics of a sustainable cityEnvironmental - conservation of historic buildings, use of brownfield sites, reducing waste disposal, adequate open space, reducing car use (improving public transport, cycling and walking opportunities)Social – including local people in the decision making process, providing adequate affordable / social housing, efficient public transportCASE STUDY – NORWICH RIVERSIDE + CURITIBA
5 POPULATION CHANGE Rate of world population growth Definitions of birth rate, death rate, natural increase, natural decrease, migration, immigrationThe stages of the demographic transition and where different countries areReasons for high birth rates in some places and falling birth rates in others. Reasons for falling death rates.Population structures / population pyramidsHow urbanisation, agricultural change and the education and emancipation of women effect population growth.Causes of rapid population growth in some countries (e.g. Kenya)What their population pyramids look like and how they could changeThe social, economic and political consequences of rapid population growth - problems of a youthful population and rapid population increase - pressure on resources, housing, jobs etc.Population policies adopted in different countries – family planning access and education, education – especially women, improving equality, improving economic developmentCASE STUDIES – KERALA, INDIA and CHINA’S ONE-CHILD POLICYCauses of falling population in some countriesEffects on economic development of an ageing population and a smaller number of young peopleThe problems of an ageing populationGovernment strategies to cope with an ageing populationIncentives to increase birthratesCASE STUDY – FRANCEPeople migrate because of push and pull factorsMigration can have positive and negative effectsMigration within the UK – CASE STUDY – POLISH MIGRANTS TO THE UK or PORTUGUESE MIGRANTS TO THE UKMigration from outside the UKRefugee movements to the UK
6 TOURISM Reasons for global increase in tourism Cities, mountains and coastal areas can be developed for tourismThe economic importance of tourism in contrasting countries – e.g. UK and KenyaContribution of tourism to the UK economyHow external (outside) factors can affect visitor numbers to the UK (exchange rates, economic growth or recession, terrorist threats)Butlers life cycle modelUK National Park – attractions, problems of large visitor numbers, strategies to cope with large visitor numbersPlans to ensure the success of tourism in chosen National ParkDefinition of mass tourismCASE STUDY – MASS TOURISM TO KENYA – THE ATTRACTIONS, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM HERE, STRATEGIES TO REDUCE NEGATIVE EFFECTS AND MAINTAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM – SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONSThe attractions of extreme environments - mountains, deserts, rainforests, Arctic/AntarcticaThe increased demand for adventure holidaysTHE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON ANTARCTICA AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH IT CAN COPE WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISMEcotourismThe need for stewardship and conservation – what these meanCASE STUDY – GALAPAGOS ISLANDS (Also – Lamu Island , Kenya and Antarctica
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