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THE RESTLESS EARTH Different types of plate boundary :

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1 THE RESTLESS EARTH Different types of plate boundary :
destructive (with subduction of ocean crust) collision (when 2 continents collide), constructive (when two plates diverge) conservative – when two plates move alongside each other How fold mountains occur when ocean and continental plate meet or when two continents collide How ocean trenches occur at subduction zones (destructive plate margins) How violent, composite volcanoes occur at destructive plate boundaries (at subduction zones How less violent shield volcanoes occur at constructive plate boundaries The primary and secondary effects of a volcanic eruption Advantages and disadvantages of volcanic eruptions How volcanic eruptions are monitored and predicted How people respond to volcanic eruptions CASE STUDY – MOUNT PINATUBO – CAUSES, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECTS, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS, IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM RESPONSES The characteristics of super volcanoes Likely effects of an eruption How earthquakes occur at destructive, conservative and constructive plate margins Epicentre, focus, shockwaves Richter scale and Mercalli scale How the effects of an earthquake and the responses can vary according to the wealth of the area where they happen CASE STUDY HAITI – CAUSES, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECT, IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM RESPONSES – PREDICTION, PREPARATION AND PROTECTION CASE STUDY CHILE – CAUSES, PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECTS, IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM RESPONSES – PREDICTION, PREPARATION AND PROTECTION THE DIFFERENCE IN THE EFFECTS AND RESPONSES TO THESE TWO EARTHQUAKES AND HOW THIS WAS AFFECTED BY WEALTH Tsunamis – a secondary effect of earthquakes and how they are caused INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI 2004 – CAUSE, EFFECTS AND RESPONSES (IMMEDIATE AND LONG TERM)

Erosion: Hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition, corrosion Vertical erosion (when the above types of erosion work downwards) Lateral erosion (when the above types of erosion work sideways) Transport: Traction, saltation, suspension, solution Deposition – river drops its ‘load’ if velocity is reduced – when a flood subsides, on the inside bend of meanders, when water spills over the banks and drops its load to create levees and floodplains Landforms produced by vertical erosion – waterfalls and gorges Landforms produced by erosion and deposition – meanders and ox-bow lakes (Meanders – river cliff, slip-off slope/point bar, meander loop, meander neck Landforms produced by deposition – levees and flood plains Drainage basin terms - watershed, interception, dripflow, evaporation, infiltration, uptake through roots, vegetation storage, transpiration, percolation, surface storage, surface flow, through flow ,ground flow River discharge (river flow) – the amount of water passing a point in a given time – usually m²/sec (cumecs) Factors affecting river flow – amount of rainfall, type of rainfall (how heavy it is – heavy or drizzle), whether it is snow or rain etc.), temperature and evaporation, previous weather conditions, rock type, relief (how steep the slopes are),land use (rural or urban, trees etc.) Causes of flooding (REMEMBER – RIVERS WILL FLOOD IF TOO MUCH WATER REACHES THE CHANNEL TOO QUICKLY) – NATURAL FACTORS – prolonged rain and saturated soil, heavy rain (faster than infiltration) , snow melt, rekief – steep slopes, lack of trees and plants HUMAN FACTORS – removal of trees, building / towns / cities (effect of sloping roofs, gutters, drains, road camber, extra water from homes and businesses, lack of vegetation, impermeable surfaces Hard engineering methods to reduce the risk or effects of flooding – dams and reservoirs, straightening – how they work and their advantages and disadvantages (costs and benefits) Soft engineering approaches – flood warning, preparation, flood plain zoning, ‘do nothing’, planting trees, restoring floodplains, permeable building materials. The costs and benefits of these CASE STUDY – FLOODING IN BANGLADESH – e.g floods – causes, effects and responses / solutions CASE STUDY – RIVER SEVERN FLOODING, GLOUCESTERSHIRE, 2007 – causes, effects and responses/solutions BE AWARE OF THE DIFFERENT EFFECTS OF FLOODS IN THESE TWO PLACES AND THE DIFFERENT RESPONSES/SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OF FLOODING Demand for water is increasing and there are areas of deficit and surplus. There is a need to transfer water from one area to another. CASE STUDY – RESERVOIR – economic, social and environmental issues The need for sustainable supplies of water

3 THE COASTAL ZONE Weathering is the breakdown of rocks ‘in situ’ (in the place where they stand. It breaks rocks up so that mass movement and wave erosion can take place. Mechanical weathering is the physical breakdown of rocks . Freeze-thaw action Chemical weathering is the reaction between rock minerals and water/air. The reactions involve chemical change that breaks the rocks down. Mass movement – sliding and slumping Constructive and destructive waves Erosion – hydraulic action, abrasion, attrition, corrosion Transport – traction, saltation, suspension and solution Longshore drift is the process by which sediment is moved along the shore Deposition occurs where waves lose energy / wave energy is dispersed – for example when LSD is happening and the coast changes direction or meets a river mouth, or in bays where wave energy is dispersed Constructive waves cause deposition Landforms of erosion – cliffs and wavecut platforms, bays and headlands, caves, arches and stacks. CASE STUDY – SWANAGE BAY AREA Landforms of deposition - beaches, spits and bars CASE STUDY – THE CAUSES OF RAPID COASTAL EROSION ALONG THE HOLDERNESS COAST OF YORKSHIRE – NATURAL AND HUMAN CAUSES. THE IMPACT ON PEOPLE AND THE ENVIRONMENT Hard engineering solutions – sea walls, groynes and rock armour – costs and benefits Soft engineering solutions – beach nourishment, dune regeneration, marsh creation. Managed retreat/’do nothing’ – costs and benefits CASE STUDY OF THE COSTS AND BENEFITS OF COASTAL MANJGEMENT AT HOLDERNESS Reasons for rising sea levels A case study of the economic, social and environmental consequences of coastal flooding – NORFOLK OR BANGLADESH CASE STUDY OF A COASTAL HABITIAT – WINTERTON SAND DUNES THE PLANTS AND ANIMALS THAT EXIST ON SAND DUNES LIKE WINTERTON – AND WHY THEY INHABIT SAND DUNES. HOW PLANTS ADAPT TO SAND DUNES HOW THE SAND DUNES ARE CONSERVED BUT STILL ALLOW SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE AREA – wooden walkways, fencing damaged areas, replanting of vegetation, public information, warden to monitor trampling/litter/ fire danger etc., several access points to avoid too much trampling in one area

Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities Urban areas grow as result of migration and natural increase Push and pull factors The difference between urban growth in MEDCs and LEDCs / NICs (richer and poorer countries) – the different pace and the different reasons Land use in UK cities – CASE STUDY NORWICH CBD Inner city – including old inner city and how inner cities have changed Suburbs Rural – urban fringe Issues facing urban areas in richer parts of the world – providing housing, , inner city problems, traffic problems, declining CBDs, ethnic segregation Problems of inner cities + Government strategies from the 1990s in inner cities Housing solutions – Gathering information about the amount and type of housing that is needed, renovation of existing housing stock, building on brownfield sites, building on greenfield sites Advantages and disadvantages of brownfield and greenfield sites. Problems and solutions to traffic problems – CASE STUDIES NORWICH AND LONDON - LONDON – oyster cards, congestion zone, Barclays cycle hire, Barclays cycle routes, Light Docklands Railway NORWICH – Park and Rides, renovated rail station with bus and cycle links to CBD, new bus terminal, better information on bus routes, improved bus routes and ticket machines, A47 bypass, bus lanes, cycle routes, safer walk to school routes, pedestrianised shopping streets Revitalising the CBD – CASE STUDY NORWICH – pedestrianised streets, shopping malls, Forum, renovation of the theatre, renovation of the market, development of leisure facilities as well as shopping, redeveloped bus station + improved car parks – better access Cultural mix / Ethnic segregation – causes + solutions Rapid growth of cities in poorer countries – push and pull factors Characteristics of squatter settlements – CASE STUDY – KIBERA or ROCINHO How residents themselves attempt to make improvements – e.g. ROCINHO or Self –help schemes, Site and Service schemes, Local Authority schemes CASE STUDY OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENT RE-DEVELOPMENT – KIBERA SLUM CLEARANCE OR Management of environmental problems caused by rapid urbanisation in poorer countries – waste, air and water pollution Characteristics of a sustainable city Environmental - conservation of historic buildings, use of brownfield sites, reducing waste disposal, adequate open space, reducing car use (improving public transport, cycling and walking opportunities) Social – including local people in the decision making process, providing adequate affordable / social housing, efficient public transport CASE STUDY – NORWICH RIVERSIDE + CURITIBA

5 POPULATION CHANGE Rate of world population growth
Definitions of birth rate, death rate, natural increase, natural decrease, migration, immigration The stages of the demographic transition and where different countries are Reasons for high birth rates in some places and falling birth rates in others. Reasons for falling death rates. Population structures / population pyramids How urbanisation, agricultural change and the education and emancipation of women effect population growth. Causes of rapid population growth in some countries (e.g. Kenya) What their population pyramids look like and how they could change The social, economic and political consequences of rapid population growth - problems of a youthful population and rapid population increase - pressure on resources, housing, jobs etc. Population policies adopted in different countries – family planning access and education, education – especially women, improving equality, improving economic development CASE STUDIES – KERALA, INDIA and CHINA’S ONE-CHILD POLICY Causes of falling population in some countries Effects on economic development of an ageing population and a smaller number of young people The problems of an ageing population Government strategies to cope with an ageing population Incentives to increase birthrates CASE STUDY – FRANCE People migrate because of push and pull factors Migration can have positive and negative effects Migration within the UK – CASE STUDY – POLISH MIGRANTS TO THE UK or PORTUGUESE MIGRANTS TO THE UK Migration from outside the UK Refugee movements to the UK

6 TOURISM Reasons for global increase in tourism
Cities, mountains and coastal areas can be developed for tourism The economic importance of tourism in contrasting countries – e.g. UK and Kenya Contribution of tourism to the UK economy How external (outside) factors can affect visitor numbers to the UK (exchange rates, economic growth or recession, terrorist threats) Butlers life cycle model UK National Park – attractions, problems of large visitor numbers, strategies to cope with large visitor numbers Plans to ensure the success of tourism in chosen National Park Definition of mass tourism CASE STUDY – MASS TOURISM TO KENYA – THE ATTRACTIONS, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM HERE, STRATEGIES TO REDUCE NEGATIVE EFFECTS AND MAINTAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM – SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS The attractions of extreme environments - mountains, deserts, rainforests, Arctic/Antarctica The increased demand for adventure holidays THE IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON ANTARCTICA AND THE EXTENT TO WHICH IT CAN COPE WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM Ecotourism The need for stewardship and conservation – what these mean CASE STUDY – GALAPAGOS ISLANDS (Also – Lamu Island , Kenya and Antarctica

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