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Superpowers: The Arms Race to Détente (1950s – 1990s Topic B Learning Guide 10.

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Presentation on theme: "Superpowers: The Arms Race to Détente (1950s – 1990s Topic B Learning Guide 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 Superpowers: The Arms Race to Détente (1950s – 1990s Topic B Learning Guide 10

2 Q1. Briefly compare & contrast the USAs nuclear arsenal to that of the former USSR before 1970 U.S.A 1945 monopoly on nukes. 1957 USSR ICBM

3 Q2. How did weapons production in the USA change after 1970? Military spending increased & a change in focus occurred A move from building the same weapons repeatedly to innovations in nuclear technology – multi war heads (MIRVS)

4 Q3. Use the Chart on pg 152 TCV to help answer questions 1 & 2. Put the chart into you notes.

5 Q4. Explain the terms and the significance of Salt I. 1972 A treaty to limit the number of anti ballistic missiles (ABMS) allowed & the number of offensive weapons (ICBMS) Preserve strategic balance. ICBMs were frozen at 1054 Focused on the limitation of strategic weaponry but did not limit other types of weapons & new technology Did not stop the arms race

6 Q5. Why was Salt II never ratified by the American Senate? President Ford and Former USSR Premier Brezhnev agree in principle to limit strategic missiles. Limits on the number of weapons both sides could build. invasion of Afghanistan took the focus away.

7 Helsinki Conference 1975 35 European nations + USA & Can. Recognize Europe's postwar boundaries (USSR) Soviets pledge support for greater freedoms and human rights (USA). Increase cooperation in trade, science and technology.

8 Q6. Define the following Détente: A policy promoting the relaxation of strained relations or tensions between nations MAD: Mutually Assured Destruction Non Proliferation: Providing for the stoppage or proliferation of nuclear arms Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty July 1, 1968 agreeing not to assist states not possessing nuclear explosives in obtaining or producing them.

9 Q7. Explain the Strategic Defense Initiative. Star wars project 1984 Implemented by Regan A defense system designed to protected all U.S.A from incoming enemy missiles

10 Q8. Compare defense spending in the USA with that of the former USSR. How did the level of defense spending affect the domestic economy? USA 5.5% of GNP –Under Regan a increased focus on military development. –Less focus on domestic issues (high inflation – less jobs). USSR 13-17% of GNP –USSR ignored consumer goods to build weapons

11 Mutually Assured Destruction

12 Q9. What is START? Peace Breaks out Arms control achievements of 1990 – 1991 –The collapse of the USSR –Revolutions in Easter Europe –Dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. –End of the Cold War Effective arms control can occur in at least 4 ways. –Reduction –Freeze –Forced restructuring (economic conditions) –Stabilizing measures

13 Q9 1991 START 1 (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) Regan / Gorbachev Bush –5 months before the collapse of the USSR –Focus to reduce the number of ballistic missiles and nuclear warheads –Called for the destruction of 6000 Soviet and American nuclear warheads

14 Q9. START II Bush – Yeltsin 1993 –Banned the use of MIRVS –Stressing their firm commitment to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons 1968 2/3 of nuclear weapons destroyed by 2003 Reduction from 12000 weapons to 3500 by 2003 Extension to Dec.31 2007 Verification –The process of making sure the terms of the accord are met. START was designed with the facilitation of verification in mind. –On-site inspections –Exchange of data

15 Barriers to Russian Ratification Economic uncertainty Strategic uncertainty

16 Q10. Between 1985 & 1989, Gorbachev and Reagan met five times. Make a Chart identifying the location, year and results of each meeting. 1.Nov. 1985 in Geneva Switzerland Agreed a nuclear war couldnt be won 2.Reykjavik 1986 Discussion on elimination 50% of strategic missiles & limiting SDI to testing in laboratory 3.Dec. 1987 (INF treaty) Signed the 1 st treaty on disarmament of Intermediate Range Nuclear Force Treaty 1 st agreement to eliminate and entire class of nuclear weapons (medium & Short range missiles) Destruction of 1600 USSR missiles & 400 American Onsite verification

17 Q.10 4.May 1988 Moscow Discussions on human rights and arms control 5.December 1988 New York Gorbachev pledges reduction in total Soviet armed forces by 10% Withdraw troops in Easter Europe Reinforced his commitment to Glasnost

18 Q11. Label the map of the world. Use the countries on pg. 373 of TCV to identify the different categories of nuclear countries.

19 Q12. Reading is LG: Nuclear Arms Race, Nuclear Proliferation, End of the Cold War

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