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Introduction & Current State of Institutional Repositories Institutional Repository Workshop 1 – 3 April 2009 Presented by

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1 Introduction & Current State of Institutional Repositories Institutional Repository Workshop 1 – 3 April 2009 Presented by

2 Currents in Open Access Movement “Open access (OA) is free, immediate, permanent, full-text, online access, for any user, web-wide, to digital scientific research and scholarly material.” online Two currents in OA movement: OA self-archiving in institutional repositories (“green” road to OA) OA publishing (“gold” road to OA – see e.g. DOAJ) Source:

3 What is an Institutional Repository? “An institutional repository is a set of services that an institution offers to the members of its community for the management and dissemination of digital materials created by the institution and its community members. It is most essentially an organizational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-term preservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access or distribution.” Clifford A. Lynch, "Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age" ARL, no. 226 (February 2003): 1-7.Institutional Repositories: Essential Infrastructure for Scholarship in the Digital Age

4 Preservation function of an IR “Digital preservation is defined as the managed activities necessary: 1) For the long term maintenance of a byte stream (including metadata) sufficient to reproduce a suitable facsimile of the original document and 2) For the continued accessibility of the document contents through time and changing technology.” Source:

5 Research @ UP “promote scholarship through the creation, advancement, application, transmission and preservation of knowledge” “ensuring that the university’s library and information services can give academics access to the information they need” “E-research & the Library” –Digitisation of rare sources –Archiving research data –Development of Virtual Research Environments –Institution-wide academic digital repository “ICT is an essential and important strategic resource for the university’s scientific work, its management of knowledge …”

6 Research @ UNISA “Be a leading research institution in South Africa” “Long term investment in the creation of new and improved knowledge and insights” “Unisa’s research policy is based on the principle of academic freedom – it encourages free and open intellectual inquiry and is a prerequisite for academic excellence” Objectives: “Enhance scholarly stature of the University” “Combination of research and community service is important” – transfer research to community “Disseminate research findings [in many forms e.g. reports, books, articles, media] – so that they may be confirmed, evaluated, applied by others UNISA Research Policy

7 Research @ UFS “The leadership of the University of the Free State recently committed themselves to an innovative focus on research as one of the three core functions of the University.” “Research at the UFS must now be developed, with a shift of emphasis from the administrative to the strategic management thereof.” Source:

8 Role of UP Library Address research needs Aim: Seamless e-service to research information Objectives: –Support education innovation & research excellence at UP –Deliver optimal e-information portal services to our clients –Take part & contribute to international & national e-information phenomena, e.g. open access, digital preservation, e-science, content management

9 Impact an IR can have on research Research on IR Increased visibility, usage, impact Increase in citation rate Impact on NRF Rating, H-index etc. Shanghai University List

10 Ways to use Institutional Repositories Scholarly communication Storing learning materials and courseware Electronic publishing Managing collections of research documents Preserving digital materials for the long term Adding to the university’s prestige by showcasing its academic research Institutional leadership role for the library Knowledge management Research assessment Encouraging open access to scholarly research Housing digitized collections

11 Types of material (printed material in pdf) Research (scholarly) articles (published peer-reviewed & pre-prints) Open lectures Conference papers & proceedings Image collections Audio and audio-visual material Digitized special collections which contain very unique material Technical reports Inaugural addresses Theses Dissertations Datasets Newspaper clippings

12 Digitally born & digitized material


14 Identify Champions to work with

15 Digital Repository Software Proprietary Proquest Digital Commons CONTENTdm Oracle, Millennium Open Source DSpace Fedora E-Prints Greenstone D-NET v. 1.0 DRIVER D-NET v. 1.0 DRIVER Hosted Option SABINET (CONTENTdm) DRIVER (D-NET v.1.0) D-NET v. 1.0 DRIVER D-NET v. 1.0 DRIVER

16 About Open Source Software Promotes collaboration and knowledge sharing between institutions who have the expertise, and the ones who do not have the expertise or necessary resources to start such a service All participants benefit, and not only the vendor Product belongs to all, and lots of support is available from the open source community No marketing is involved – therefore there is not a clever salesman involved selling the product, only focusing on the stuff the program can do, and not the limitations. What you see is what you get Open Source software is flexible It promotes openness and creative thinking It is open for scrutiny It is searchable and retrievable via the World Wide Web It can be used by institutions with minimal resources World standards and open standards are used, which make it a very favorable choice

17 About DSpace About DSpace

18 We had a record number of new DSpace repositories registered recently -- 24 in all! The list includes 2 new countries for DSpace -- Ghana and Ecuador.

19 Collaboration: DSpace & Fedora (DuraSpace) Collaboration: DSpace & Fedora (DuraSpace)

20 Research out quickly, worldwide Increases visibility, usage, impact of research “open access papers are read more widely, and, therefore, cited more frequently. The consequence of this is that they have greater impact” (Jones, Andrew and MacColl 2006) Open access to all – also those who cannot afford subscribing Central archive of research Persistent URL Preservation function Full text searchable E-workflow for quality control Distributed/ decentralised input Limit access on various levels Information Model (Communities & Collections) Benefits of an IR (DSpace)

21 DSpace Information Model DSpace Information Model (3 levels or more) Top-Level Community Faculty e.g. Economic and Management Sciences Sub-Community Department e.g. Accounting Collections E.g. Theses (Accounting) Dissertations (Accounting) Research Articles (Accounting) Open Lectures (Accounting) etc. Submit items on Collection Level

22 Top-level Community Sub-Community Collections

23 An Item in DSpace Metadata Bitstream/s (full text files)

24 Using an Item in DSpace Print E-mail Save Read

25 Searching in DSpace Search Options  Full text  Keyword (Basic Search)  Advanced Search  Browse  Communities & Collections  Titles  Authors  Date

26 Subscribe to a Collection

27 Prior to submitting an item to the IR Obtain permission (copyright clearance, letters of consent) Scan/ Digitize File format (pdf) File naming convention Convert/ edit documents Add watermark/ header/ footer

28 Intellectual Property Rights Exclusive rights to the creative work, commercial symbol, or invention which is covered by it – remains with owner/creator Permission obtained from rights holder DC Element “Rights” – individual items Add “Rights”- document/ file together with item Copyright/ Rights note for Collection/ Community

29 Copyright Credit copyright holder for work DC Element “Rights” – individual items Copyright/ Rights note for Collection/ Community Three approaches: –Publisher policy on SHERPA RoMEO – else; –Visit publisher web page, or –Contact publisher directly and obtain permission – archive letter of consent on your IR – encourage registration with SHERPA/RoMEO

30 Publisher’s policy on self-archiving

31 Letters of Consent Collection on IR

32 Licensing License stored with each item – Submitter grants license “By submitting this license, you (the owner of the rights) grants to the University of Pretoria the non-exclusive right to reproduce, translate (as defined below), and/or distribute your submission (including the abstract) worldwide in print and electronic format and in any medium, including but not limited to audio or video.”

33 Limiting access in DSpace


35 Role description (collection management, identify projects, prioritise, implement, training, integration, marketing) Benefits Easy to access Stay updated with regard to research conducted Encourages collaboration between faculty & Library Positions library within faculties & University Develop new skills Support researchers … Subject Librarians

36 … Cataloguers Role description (cataloguing & classification, experience in language, diacritics, and standard making, taxonomies and controlled vocabularies, analytical and detail-oriented nature, understanding of the importance of balancing the need for standards with the demands for interoperability ) Benefits New skills Increased visibility and expertise Demonstrate the relevancy of cataloguers in digital age Connect more closely with broader range of library-wide goals Networking You have a great deal to offer!

37 Workflow Copyright Digitization Submission Reviewing Metadata Editing Available on IR IR Manager Collection Administrators Pre-DSpace DSpace E-mail notification to Submitter & Subscribers Reject Other role players: Specialists, IR IS&T Manager File naming

38 Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR) Tim Brody, University of Southampton, UK 1 301


40 Cumulative deposits


42 openDOAR (over 1 200 listings) openDOAR (over 1 200 listings) University of Nottingham, UK: RoMEO Juliet OpenDOAR SHERPA Search SHERPASHERPA

43 openDOAR (Africa = 23)


45 1 732 items!

46 openDOAR South Africa (15) –Boloka: Research Repository North-West University –Council for Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR Research Space) –Durban University of Technology (DUT IR) –Rhodes University (ReRR) –Stellenbosch University –University of Cape Town (UCT CS Archive) –University of Johannesburg (ETD Database & UJDigispace) –University of Pretoria (UPSpace & UPeTD) –University of South Africa (Unisa ETD) –University of the Western Cape (AHERO & UWC Theses & Dissertations) –University of the Witwatersrand

47 openDOAR – By Country openDOAR – By Country (Source: University of Nottingham, UK: )

48 openDOAR – Repository Software openDOAR – Repository Software (Source: University of Nottingham, UK: ) DSpace = 395; E-Prints = 315; ETD-db = 25; Fedora = 12; CONTENTdm = ?

49 openDOAR – Content Types openDOAR – Content Types (Source: University of Nottingham, UK: )

50 DSpace Registry DSpace Registry Alphabetical.html Alphabetical.html 8 in SA

51 Australian National University

52 Simon Fraser University

53 University of Tokyo

54 University of Groningen

55 University of Cambridge

56 University of Michigan

57 Open Access & IR Initiatives DRAMBORA DCC DSpace http://www.dspace.org JISC SHERPA ROAR OpenDOAR Open Archives Initiative DRIVER

58 Outcomes of an IR New roles & responsibilities Communities of Practice (social networks) will be established Knowledge transfer Organizational learning Change of mind-sets Empowerment Teamwork & collaboration Management support

59 Start setting up your own IR … Needs Analysis Proposal/ Business Plan/ Timeline Installation of software Administering & using your IR Metadata Evaluation IR Policy Training Marketing Exposure

60 Questions?

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