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MOOS Science Experiment 2004 John Ryan. MOOS is an integrated array of observing resources and infrastructure being developed to advance ocean science.

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Presentation on theme: "MOOS Science Experiment 2004 John Ryan. MOOS is an integrated array of observing resources and infrastructure being developed to advance ocean science."— Presentation transcript:

1 MOOS Science Experiment 2004 John Ryan

2 MOOS is an integrated array of observing resources and infrastructure being developed to advance ocean science and its methods. It includes: mooring systems cabled observatory systems autonomous underwater vehicles instrumentation software infrastructure shore-side data system What is MOOS?

3 Application, Demonstration, Development Application of advanced observing system technologies to pursue cutting- edge science Demonstration and testing of evolving technology Development of observatory concepts and capabilities: Preparation for the experiment guides development efforts toward coherent scientific & technological achievements Execution of the experiment tests observing system capabilities in realistic and demanding ways. What is a MOOS Science Experiment? Major science drivers form soil Roots and trunk are science/engineering (sciengineering?) efforts Branches and leaves are technology development pathways that take in nutrition from the roots and trunk and light and fresh air from the outside MOOS Science Experiments are like fruits that grow from application of evolving technology at the forefront of scientific disciplines and that house seeds for further growth Interesting and strange birds may land on the tree and fertilize the soil below, or they may eat the fruit and spread the seeds elsewhere

4 MSE 2000: MUSE Iron as ecosystem regulator Phytoplankton ecology Bioluminescence ecology Frontal dynamics Multi-platform sensing Use of real-time data MSE 2000: MUSE

5 BIN & RIN Design ROV Cable Laying MSE : Canyon Dynamics Science Experiment Canyon formation & evolution Material fluxes to deep sea

6 MSE 2004 Process Projected availability of new technological capabilities Defined major science interests in applying emergent capabilities Chose a region where we can pursue cutting edge science while applying, demonstrating, and developing MOOS capabilities Refined/Refining science goals & plans to prioritize and guide development efforts leading up to the experiment Specifying resource needs, system architecture & operational plans for MSE

7 MSE Process Details MOOS mooring (communications and power to the seafloor, connected benthic nodes, enhanced instrument hosting capabilities) MBARI mooring time series ISI and SSDS (plug & work, connectivity to instruments and data streams to ensure proper functioning of instruments and subsystems and capture of data and metadata, modify behaviors to optimize observations, respond to events, facilitate data and metadata management Vertical profiling (better resolution of water column structure) Project Capabilities Define Science Choose a Region Refine Science Specify a Design

8 MSE Process Details cont… The intersection of major science interests with emergent technological capabilities forms a core around which experimental opportunities, goals, and plans spin. The science frontiers envisioned for MOOS took shape during the 1999 MOOS Workshop and are detailed in the report "The Future of MBARI Ocean Observing Systems." The MOOS functional requirements document built upon these interests that span all oceanographic disciplines from air-sea interface to seafloor. Define Science Project Capabilities Define Science Choose a Region Refine Science Specify a Design

9 MSE Process Details cont… We found a primary region of interest based primarily on details of scientific interests (next section). However serviceability is key. During early stages of the process there was a balance of healthy imagination of possibilities and realistic expectations of resources. Because we sought to build the science around a single mooring location, it was essential to consider overlap between scientific motivations and limits of the new MOOS capabilities, e.g. the spatial scale of connected benthic nodes relative to the scales of processes. Choose a Region Project Capabilities Define Science Choose a Region Refine Science Specify a Design

10 MSE Process Details cont… For each of the interdisciplinary science frontiers sighted for MSE 2004, we refined science goals and plans in focus group meetings and reports that detailed the science, questions and hypotheses, measurements required, and uses of emergent MOOS capabilities. Upper/mid-water column and pelagic-benthic coupling Lower canyon and seafloor Seep processes and chemosynthetic biological communities Seismic studies Refine Science Project Capabilities Define Science Choose a Region Refine Science Specify a Design

11 MSE Process Details cont… This effort is closely coupled with the refinement of science goals and plans. It includes: Specifying power and communications for instruments that will be supported on the mooring Detailing uses of MOOS hardware and other complementary observing resources Specifying data management goals, especially with regard to connectivity (from verification of proper instrument functioning to event response) Developing concepts of operation Specify a Design Project Capabilities Define Science Choose a Region Refine Science Specify a Design

12 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Flux of organic carbon to the seafloor Carbon flux from surface to below the euphotic zone may be strongly enhanced by current meanders in the zone where the mooring will reside. Carbon flux via Monterey Canyon to the fan passes through a very steep meander of the canyon: Shepard Meander.

13 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Dynamics and ecology of the Coastal Transition Zone (CTZ) Where recently upwelled waters flowing seaward meet the California Current, there are transitions in the biological communities, and transport processes strongly influence the fate of upwelling system productivity (pelagic-benthic coupling). Upper Water Column - Background

14 How do we define the CTZ?

15 SeaWiFS Phytoplankon Chlorophyll August 20, 2002

16 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science 1.What is the magnitude of vertical flux from the pelagic to the benthic environment 2.How does it depend upon zone (recently upwelled water shoreward of the first transition versus aged upwelled water between the first and second transition)? 3.How do plankton assemblages differ between different zones and how do different assemblages influence export of biomass from the upper water column to the seafloor? 4.Does subduction in meanders enhance flux to the seafloor or are they remineralized and transported back into the upwelling system? 5.If frontal processes do enhance flux to the seafloor, how do these fluxes compare with integrated fluxes over larger non-frontal regions? Upper Water Column - Questions

17 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science MOOS Mooring Supporting diverse instrumentation in transition zone. ISI/SIAM & SSDS Permitting connectivity for modification of moored sampling characteristics and decisions about deployment of shore-based capabilities Vertical Profiling Detailing vertical structure of the water column that is critical to understanding ocean margin ecology Upper Water Column – MOOS’s Uses

18 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Canyon & Seafloor - Background Monterey Canyon is the largest submarine canyon incising the continental margin of western North America, and undoubtedly plays a large role in the transport of sediment and carbon from inshore habitats to the abyssal plain. While its role in material transport is certain, we know little about the rates, variability, and processes dominating material transport, or the influence of lateral carbon transport on the biology and ecology of the canyon ecosystem. Material Transport

19 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Canyon & Seafloor - Questions Principal hypothesis: primary supply of carbon to benthic organisms in lower canyon is down- canyon flux. 1.What is the magnitude and variability of particulate organic carbon (POC) flux in lower Monterey Canyon? compared with upper canyon lateral versus vertical 2.What is the response of the bentho-pelagic and benthic faunal communities to POC fluxes in lower Monterey Canyon? comparing canyon axis, non canyon, and canyon influenced sites, how do benthic communities differ in their composition, complexity and productivity Lower Canyon & Seafloor

20 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Canyon & Seafloor – MOOS’s Uses work MOOS Mooring / BIN & RIN Supporting diverse instrumentation in multiple seafloor environments. BIN/RIN essential for pelagic-benthic coupling studies & understanding major flux processes. ISI/SIAM & SSDS Permitting connectivity for modification of moored sampling characteristics and decisions about deployment of shore-based capabilities Deep Vertical Profiling Characterizing flows and constituents of the deep boundary layer within which materials are transported down-canyon Tiburon (deep) Cable Laying

21 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Seeps & CBC’s – Background Seeps and Chemosynthetic Communities There are some very exciting applications of MOOS in this science area. Pursuit of this science is dependent upon central node location being near a robust seep site, and this is not likely for MSE 2004.

22 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Seeps & CBC’s – Questions Seeps and Chemosynthetic Communities What are the spatial and temporal scales and variability of chemical fluxes from seeps? How does the microbal community of the sediments and overlying water column respond? How do circulation patterns influence reproductive strategies and dispersal of seep species? How does variation in sulfide and other bioreactive compounds affect recruitment, growth, productivity, and survival of seep organisms?

23 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Seeps & CBC’s – MOOS’s Uses work MOOS Mooring / BIN & RIN Supporting diverse instrumentation in multiple seafloor environments for comparative studies ISI/SIAM & SSDS Permitting connectivity for intelligent control of limited sampling (ESP example)

24 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Seismic Studies – Background The chosen site is not ideal for seismic studies, however seismic measurements and testing of connectivity would be valuable. Placement of a seismometer on a BIN is dependent upon being able to locate on a flat region adjacent to the canyon.

25 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Seismic Studies – Questions The seismic science considered for MSE 2004 was for the San Gregario Fault region.

26 A Cross-cutting Theme Upper Water Column Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Canyon & Seafloor Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seeps & CBC’s Background Questions MOOS’s Uses Seismic Studies Background Questions MOOS’s Uses MSE 2004 Science Seismic Studies – MOOS’s Uses MOOS Mooring / BIN & RIN Would be first attempt at networked seismometers on multiple benthic nodes of a moored system ISI/SIAM & SSDS Connectivity to instruments valuable for ensuring proper functioning, and value of data is enhanced if accessible following a significant event. work


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