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Elaine Fisher Ph D Areas to discuss The Convention Text + Articles and definitions Entry into force Ratification by Jamaica Articles of the Convention.

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Presentation on theme: "Elaine Fisher Ph D Areas to discuss The Convention Text + Articles and definitions Entry into force Ratification by Jamaica Articles of the Convention."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elaine Fisher Ph D Areas to discuss The Convention Text + Articles and definitions Entry into force Ratification by Jamaica Articles of the Convention Obligations re Articles The COP The SBSTTA Functions of COP:decisions and reviews etc SBSTTA: Guidance Thematic Areas & Cross-cutting areas Protocols Jamaica’s implementation:NBSAP, CHM a priority project Biosafety Protocol The BCH

2 Elaine Fisher Ph D What is Biological/biodiversity? Biological diversity - or biodiversity - is the term given to the variety of life on Earth and the natural patterns it forms.. It forms the web of life of which we are an integral part and upon which we so fully depend. This diversity is often understood in terms of the wide variety of plants, animals and microorganisms.

3 Elaine Fisher Ph D What is biodiversity? Biodiversity also includes genetic differences within each species - for example between varieties of crops and breeds of livestock. another aspect of biodiversity is the variety of ecosystems such as those that occur in deserts, forests, wetlands, mountains, lakes, rivers, and agricultural landscapes. In each ecosystem, living creatures, including humans, form a community, interacting with one another and with the air, water, and soil around them.

4 The Convention on biological Diversity (CBD) is a United Nations Convention and is one of the so called three “Rio Conventions” which opened for signature on June 5, 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Jamaica was one of the many countries which signed the Convention at that time, indicating its commitment to the objectives of the Convention. The Convention on biological Diversity

5 Elaine Fisher Ph D The Convention on biological Diversity The Convention entered into force in December 1993 and Jamaica ratified it in January Currently there are 190 Parties to the Convention.

6 Elaine Fisher Ph D Terminology Entry into force: Conventions/protocols/treaties are not binding in international law until they have been ratified by an agreed number of countries. In the case of the CBD, ratification by 30 countries was needed for the treaty to enter into force. The CBD entered into force for the first 30 Parties on 29 December It enters into force for other Parties 90 days after each ratifies.

7 Elaine Fisher Ph D Terminology Contd. Ratification: In this context - a process of adopting an international treaty preceded by signing. State or Federation/Union now becomes a Party. What does it mean to be a Party? legally bound to implement the treaty. Obligations of signatories – not legally bound but commits itself to the spirit of the treaty, that is not to do any thing that would be counter to the objectives of the treaty.

8 Elaine Fisher Ph D Why a Convention? Heightened concern about environmental destruction and loss of species and ecosystems in the seventies led to concerted action. In 1972, the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm) resolved to establish the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Governments signed a number of regional and international agreements to tackle specific issues, such as protecting wetlands and regulating the international trade in endangered species. These agreements, along with controls on toxic chemicals and pollution, have helped to slow the tide of destruction but have not reversed it.

9 Elaine Fisher Ph D Why a Convention? In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission) concluded that economic development must become less ecologically destructive. In its landmark report, Our Common Future, it said that: "Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable-to ensure that it meets needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". It also called for "a new era of environmentally sound economic development".

10 Elaine Fisher Ph D Why a Convention? In 1992, the largest-ever meeting of world leaders took place at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An historic set of agreements was signed at the "Earth Summit", including two binding agreements, the Convention on Climate Change, which targets industrial and other emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, and the Convention on Biological Diversity, the first global agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

11 Elaine Fisher Ph D The Convention Several Articles make up the text of the Convention which, inter alia, defines the objectives of the Convention and areas for consideration by its Parties.

12 Elaine Fisher Ph D Article 1. Objectives of the CBD the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.

13 Elaine Fisher Ph D Operations of the Convention The Conference of the Parties: Makes Decisions for implementation by Parties Its Subsidiary Body SBSTTA: Provides Scientific, technical and technological advice to the COP, thereby enabling it to make decisions related to biodiversity for implementation by the Parties.

14 Elaine Fisher Ph D Operations of the Convention Decisions include: 1.Actions for Parties to implement on the various thematic and cross-cutting issues as defined by the various articles of the Convention 2.Administrative arrangements to facilitate the efficient operation of the Convention including communication among Parties.

15 Elaine Fisher Ph D CBD Thematic Areas POWs developed for implementation: 1.Marine and coastal biodiversity 2.Agricultural biodiversity 3.Forest biodiversity 4.Island biodiversity 5.The biodiversity of inland waters 6.Dry and sub-humid lands 7.Mountain biodiversity

16 Elaine Fisher Ph D CBD Cross- cutting issues 1.Access to genetic resources 2.Traditional knowledge innovations and practices (Article 8(j)) 3.Indicators 4.Goal Taxonomy Initiative 5.Public education and awareness 6.Incentives 7.Alien species Biodiversity target 9.Biodiversity & Tourism

17 Elaine Fisher Ph D CBD Cross- cutting issues 10.Climate Change and Biological Diversity 11.Economics, trade & incentive measures 12.Ecosystem Approach 13.Global Strategy for Plant Conservation 14.Impact Assessments 15.Sustainable use of biodiversity 16.Technology transfer & cooperation 17.Protected areas 18.Liability & redress

18 Elaine Fisher Ph D Administrative arrangements Convention on Biological Diversity Primary National Focal Points to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD NFP)Primary National Focal Points to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD NFP) National Focal Points to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA NFP)National Focal Points to the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA NFP) National Focal Points to the Clearing-House Mechanism (CHM NFP) National Focal Points to Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS NFP) Competent National Authorities on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS CNA)Competent National Authorities on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS CNA) National Focal Points to the Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI NFP) National Focal Points to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC NFP)National Focal Points to the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC NFP) Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Primary National Focal Point to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB NFP)Primary National Focal Point to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB NFP) National Focal Point to the Biosafety Clearing-House (BCH NFP)

19 Elaine Fisher Ph D Article Technical and Scientific Cooperation The Conference of the Parties, at its first meeting, shall determine how to establish a clearing-house mechanism to promote and facilitate technical and scientific cooperation. What is a Clearing-house? a central collection place where banks exchange checks or drafts; participants maintain an account against which credits or debits are posted wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn

20 Elaine Fisher Ph D National Strategy and Action Plan on Biological Diversity in Jamaica The National Strategy and Action Plan on Biological Diversity in Jamaica was developed under the guidance of a multi- sectoral National Biodiversity Steering Committee with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF), it was implemented by UNDP and executed by the National Environment Planning Agency (NEPA). It was completed in July 2003.

21 Elaine Fisher Ph D NBSAP contd. Its contents include: an assessment of Jamaica’s Biodiversity; legal and policy framework for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity; the major gaps and challenges affecting the conservation and sustainable use of Jamaica’s biodiversity; a national biodiversity strategy with defined goals; and an Action Plan in which there is a list of 37 suggested projects which relate to the goals outlined in the Strategy. Priority issues have already been identified at the national level as the projects concepts have been ranked, 8 as highest priority and 10 as priority. The CHM expansion is listed as a priority project.

22 Elaine Fisher Ph D Structure of the CHM Secretariat PartiesUN EntitiesInt.Organisations Parties

23 Elaine Fisher Ph D The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Biodiversity

24 Elaine Fisher Ph D Terminology What is a Protocol? A Protocol as a supplementary treaty is an instrument which contains supplementary provisions to a previous treaty.

25 Elaine Fisher Ph D What is Biosafety? The concept of biosafety encompasses a range of measures, policies and procedures for minimizing potential risks that biotechnology may pose to the environment and human health. Establishing credible and effective safeguards for GMOs is critical for maximizing the benefits of biotechnology while minimizing its risks. Biosafety is a term used to describe efforts to reduce and eliminate the potential risks resulting from biotechnology and its products.

26 Elaine Fisher Ph D What are GMOs/LMOs? A Living Modified Organism (LMO) is defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety as any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. The Protocol also defines the terms 'living organism' and 'modern biotechnology‘. In everyday usage LMOs are usually considered to be the same as GMOs (Genetically Modified Organisms), but definitions and interpretations of the term GMO vary widely. Common LMOs include agricultural crops that have been genetically modified for greater productivity or for resistance to pests or diseases. Examples of modified crops include tomatoes, cassava, corn, cotton and soybeans.

27 Elaine Fisher Ph D Background In 1995, Pursuant to Article 19, paragraph 3, of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Parties to the Convention begun negotiations on a legally binding agreement that would address potential risks posed by Geneticaly Modified Organisms.Article 19 Art.19,para.3 states: The Parties shall consider the need for and modalities of a protocol setting out appropriate procedures, including, in particular, advance informed agreement, in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of any living modified organism resulting from biotechnology that may have adverse effect on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.

28 Background Cartagena Biosafety Protocol Contd. These discussions culminated in January 2000 with the adoption of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety in Montreal Protocol entered into force Parties to the Protocol

29 Elaine Fisher Ph D Scope of Protocol The Protocol applies to the transboundary movement, transit, handling and use of all living modified organisms (LMOs) that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health. However, LMOs that are pharmaceuticals for humans are excluded from the scope of the Protocol if they are covered by another international agreement or arrangement.

30 Elaine Fisher Ph D Jamaica’s position in relation to the Protocol Jamaica signed the Protocol in June Need for legislation prior to ratification to facilitate enforcement. Currently implementing UNEP/GEF/GOJ project to develop frameworks

31 Elaine Fisher Ph D Establishment of the BCH: Article 20. Information Sharing and the Biosafety Clearing-House A Biosafety Clearing-House is hereby established as part of the clearing-house mechanism under Article 18, paragraph 3, of the Convention, in order to: (a) Facilitate the exchange of scientific, technical, environmental and legal information on, and experience with, living modified organisms. Information to be posted includes: any existing laws, regulations and guidelines for implementation of the Protocol, as well as information required by the Parties for the advance informed agreement procedure;

32 Elaine Fisher Ph D Advance Informed Agreement The Protocol prescribes an `advance informed agreement' (AIA) procedure that must be followed, prior to the first intentional transboundary movement of LMOs for intentional introduction into the environment of the Party of import. Information relating to the AIA should also be posted on the BCH


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