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PROMOTING SUCCESS IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS DR. LINDA GRIFFIN, LEWIS & CLARK COLLEGE, PORTLAND, OREGON LGRIFFIN@LCLARK.EDU NWM CONFERENCE: OCTOBER 11, 2014

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CONTENT OBJECTIVES Learn what research says about high quality mathematics instruction for ELLs Identify CCSS-M resources that reflect research-recommended practices Determine ways you can support ELL students and math teachers to improve outcomes for ELLs.

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LANGUAGE OBJECTIVES Discuss new learning using appropriate mathematical and pedagogical vocabulary Write a personal action step resulting from the presentation

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Building background Chat Stations* In groups of 3-4, rotate through the four chat stations posted around the room. Stop at each station and discuss the prompt. Rotate when timer sounds. Be ready to share your group’s ideas. *Source: Jennifer Gonzalez, Cult of Pedagogy http://www.cultofpedagogy.com/chat-stations/

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Addressing Head & Heart & Hand

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Equity issues math teachers need to understand

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Head Math teachers need to understand the critical equity role mathematics education plays

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“Mathematics is the gatekeeper to higher education…Because ELLs are not achieving at the same levels in math as their native English-speaking counterparts, many are at risk of having the gate to higher education closed to them.” —Bresser, et al (2009)

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“If we fail to provide the tools for ELL students to gain math literacy, they will be left with ever narrowing access to the democracy that defines this country.” —Sarah A. Roberts (2009)

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Position Statement: Teaching Mathematics to English Language Learners Mathematics teachers must attend to all students, including those who speak a first language other than English or have related cultural differences, and ensure that all have access and opportunities to learn mathematics and to reveal what they know. Every student’s cultural and linguistic heritage should be respected and celebrated for the diversity that it contributes to the learning environment. Expanded learning opportunities and instructional accommodations should be available to English language learners (ELLs) who need them to develop mathematical understanding and proficiency.

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COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS New ambitious goals for all students Standards for Mathematical Practice require language skills Increased language demands in new mathematics curricula

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What else? What other equity issues exist in your school for ELLs and mathematics?

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Perspectives math teachers need to feel

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Heart Math teachers need to build empathy for ELL students

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GREAT DIVERSITY IN ELL POPULATION Diversity exists across many characteristics ◦Native languages ◦Levels of English language development ◦Prior life experiences ◦Prior schooling and formal education experiences ◦Interest in and prior success with mathematics ◦Personalities and learning preferences It is the teacher’s role continually explore new methods to engage all ELLs to meet the same high standards set for all students.

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LANGUAGE ACQUISITION ELLs move through different stages as they acquire English proficiency and at all stages need comprehensible input.

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LANGUAGE USED AT SCHOOL BASIC INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS (BICS) Language used for social interactions Informal language about day-to-day events Requires vocabulary to communicate about people, places, and events Primarily verbal, present tense, active voice COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY (CALP) Language used for acquiring knowledge Formal language about specific academic subjects Requires vocabulary to communicate about abstract and complex ideas Verbal and written, other tenses, passive voice

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RELATIVE COMMUNICATION DEMANDS COGNITIVE LOAD Undemanding Demanding CONTEXT Reduced Rich Gestures Peer Conversations Small group discussion about math Scaffolded and structured learning tasks Phone conversation Text messaging Read and understand word problem Gain information through lecture

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LANGUAGE DIVERSITY IS A RESOURCE

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From Chat Station #2 What do you think ELL students wish they could tell their math teachers?

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WHAT HS ELLS WISH TEACHERS KNEW MISTAKES TEACHERS MAKE 1.Saving us embarrassment by not calling on us. 2.Always grouping us together. 3.Avoiding conflict by ignoring students who tease us. 4.Giving us assignments that are identical to everyone else. 5.Assuming that when we don’t raise our hands we don’t need help. 6.Assuming the help we need is always translation. HOW THIS HURTS US 1.This makes us feel invisible and unvalued in your class. 2.This prevents us from learning from and with all of our classmates. 3.We can’t ignore the teasing. We need someone in authority to address it. 4.We need language accommodations to help us meet the learning targets. 5.We may be too shy or uncomfortable to raise our hands. We rely on you to initiate assistance. 6.We need the same help as everyone else—an example, more explanation, a definition.

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Research-based practices math teachers need to use

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Hands Math teachers need tools and resources

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T-Chart Predictions Effective practices I’ve seen/used in math class Research-based practices (will be revealed on the next slides)

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TEACHERS PROVIDE LANGUAGE SUPPORTS Use multiple modes of mathematical communication Develop linguistically sensitive mathematics discourse practices “Students must learn to speak the language of mathematics and participate in practices that are unique to the mathematics classroom. In many cases, this means that teachers will need to model these practices for students until they can be full participants.” —Roberts (2009)

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Require student-to-student talk Think – pair – share Multiple representations (diagrams, drawings, gestures, technology, objects) Jigsaw tasks Give 1-Get 1 brainstorming Purposeful grouping of students Chat stations

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Support Vocabulary Development Use graphic organizers such as the Frayer model

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Support Vocabulary Development Personal glossaries in English and/or first language TermDefinitionExample/diagram Inequality la desigualdad (Spanish) Like an equation, but no equal sign ( ) 4x – 5 > 15 Vertex Lugood (Somali) Corner of a figure or angle Record Ghi lại (Vietnamese) Write down.Tally marks for data collection. ||||

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Support Vocabulary Development Online math glossaries in multiple languages http://www.glencoe.com/apps/eGlossary612/landing.php http://my.hrw.com/math06_07/nsmedia/tools/glossary/ msm/glossary.html

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Anticipate Potentially Confusing Language Clarify polysemous words in math ◦E.g: table, right, similar, rational, difference, root, domain, power Point out mathematical homophones ◦Sum vs some; hundreds vs hundredths; by vs buy Be aware of cultural variations 3,0003.000 4.564,56

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Mediate Language Demands

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Framework continued Source: Oliveira, Luciana. (2012). “The Language Demands of Word Problems for English Language Learners.”

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Consider Five Language Domains ReadingWritingSpeakingListeningRepresenting Class survey results Newspaper excerpt (text and graph) Task directions posted on doc camera Other students’ presentation posters Responses to newspaper article Summary statements from class data Poster annotations Summarize newspaper article (partner) Graph interpretations (partner) Respond to teacher questions (whole class) Present poster with partner (whole class) Teacher questions about newspaper article Task directions Partner responses Other students’ presentations Poster showing survey responses (tally marks and graph) Gestures during presentation Source: Aguirrre & Bunch (2012)

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TEACHERS PROVIDE VISUAL MODELS Make use of technology to support mathematical learning Encourage the use of models as tools for thinking and communicating mathematically “Mathematical tools and mathematical modeling provide a resource for ELLs to engage in mathematics and communicate their mathematical understanding and are essential in developing a community that enhances discourse.” —Ramirez (2012)

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Use Graphing Tools ◦Source: NCTM’s Illuminations site ◦Example: Function MatchingFunction Matching

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Use Manipulatives ◦Source: National Library of Virtual Manipulatives ◦Example: Algebra Balance Scales-NegativesAlgebra Balance Scales-Negatives

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Use Tutorials ◦Khan Academy videos in English and 18 other languages ◦Example: UkranianUkranian

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TEACHERS USE HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES Empower learners by engaging them with the content Promote mathematical understanding of the problem context and the solution “It is both possible and important to engage ELLs at all levels of language proficiency in mathematical work that challenges them on a regular basis to reason mathematically and solve problems.” —Driscoll, Heck, & Malzahn (2012)

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Example: Barbie Bungee Jump ◦Lesson: NCTM’s IlluminationsNCTM’s Illuminations ◦Video: Teaching ChannelTeaching Channel

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Example: The Shape of Things ◦Lesson: Inside MathematicsInside Mathematics ◦Video: Inside MathematicsInside Mathematics

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Example: Setting Up Sprinklers ◦Lesson: Illustrative MathematicsIllustrative Mathematics

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TEACHERS PROVIDE SCAFFOLDING Graphic organizers Think-write-pair-share Intentional partnering Think aloud by teacher; by students Reciprocal learning Reciprocal learning Summarizing

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TEACHERS VARY ASSIGNMENTS Provide options that reduce the language demands while maintaining the content demands ◦Sentence frames for responses ◦The main idea of today’s lesson was _______________. ◦These two ___________ have the same ______________. ◦It’s important to remember ________ when solving ______________. ◦Flexibility with respect to ◦Due dates ◦Length of assignment ◦Ways to demonstrate knowledge

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Summary Effective practices I’ve seen/used in math class Research-based practices Provide language supports Provide visual models Use hands-on activities Provide scaffolding Vary assignments

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Model Lesson Plan: Interpreting Graphs 1.GUIDED INTERPRETATION 2.READING & DEMONSTRATING IN FOUR VOICES 3.CREATE – EXCHANGE – ASSESS 4.SUMMARIZING WHAT YOU KNOW

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1. GUIDED INTERPRETATION Preview what students will need to know about line graphs. Describe key features of a graph Describe 1 point on the graph. Temperature Time of Day

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2. READING & DEMONSTRATING IN FOUR VOICES Each student is given one of four “voices” that represent different portions of the graph. As a group, students determine which voice matches which part of the graph and record their observations. Temperature Time of Day This graph shows the relationship between the time of day and the temperature in Portland, Oregon in October. By 9 p.m. the temperature has returned to 40 degrees. In the next two hours, the temperature increased quickly to 70 degrees. At 8 a.m. the temperature was 40 degrees Fahrenheit and it slowly increased to 50 degrees by 10 a.m. T HE TEMPERATURE STAYED AT 70 DEGREES UNTIL 5 P. M. AND SLOWLY DECREASED UNTIL 7 P. M.

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3. CREATE – EXCHANGE – ASSESS Students groups are given a novel graph and asked to create 4 new “voices.” Groups exchange graphs/voices and are again asked to match voice with graph. Groups give feedback to one another to help improve voices. Atmospheric CO 2 (ppm) Year 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

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4. SUMMARIZING WHAT YOU KNOW The final piece is to specifically teach students the language of summarizing. Use one last graph. Use sentence frames: “This graph represents the relationship between ___ and ___.” “As ___ increases, ___ decreases.” Use short exit slips, or dedicate more time to writing summary paragraphs. But always have students take the time to determine what they have learned.

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NOW WHAT? PERSONAL ACTION STEPS Give 1—Get 1 sharing

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CONTENT OBJECTIVES Learn what research says about high quality mathematics instruction for ELLs Identify CCSS-M resources that reflect research-recommended practices Determine ways you can support ELL students and math teachers to improve outcomes for ELLs.

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LANGUAGE OBJECTIVES Discuss new learning using appropriate mathematical and pedagogical vocabulary Write a personal action step resulting from the presentation

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Books and articles Carroll, C., S. Cremer, et al. (2009). Making mathematics accessible to English learners: A guidebook for teachers, grades 6-12. WestEd. Celedon-Pattichis, S., N. Ramirez. (2012). Beyond good teaching: Advancing mathematics education for ELLs. NCTM. Deussen, T., E. Autio, et al. (2008) What teachers should know about instruction for English language learners. Education Nortwest. Available for download: http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/what-teachers-should-know-about- instruction-english-language-learners http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/what-teachers-should-know-about- instruction-english-language-learners Echevarria, J., M. Vogt, et al. (2010). The SIOP model for teaching mathematics to English learners. Pearson.

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Books and articles Hansen-Thomas, H. (2009). English Language Learners and Math. Charlotte, NC, Information Age Publishing. Roberts, S. A. (2009). "Supporting English language learners' development of mathematical literacy." Democracy & Education, 18(3): 29-36. Waddell, L. R. (2014). “Using Culturally Ambitious Teaching Practices to Support Urban Mathematics Teaching and Learning.” Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education, 8(2), 2.

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Websites featured in this presentation Cult of Pedagogy ◦ http://www.cultofpedagogy.com/ http://www.cultofpedagogy.com/ NCTM ◦ http://illuminations.nctm.org http://illuminations.nctm.org National Library of Virtual Manipulatives ◦http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.htmlhttp://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html Khan Academy—list of language options ◦http://khanacademy.desk.com/customer/portal/articles/329337-is-khan-academy-available- in-other-languages-http://khanacademy.desk.com/customer/portal/articles/329337-is-khan-academy-available- in-other-languages-

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Websites featured in this presentation Inside Mathematics o http://insidemathematics.org/ http://insidemathematics.org/ Illustrative Mathematics o http://www.illustrativemathematics.org/ http://www.illustrativemathematics.org/ Online multilingual glossaries o http://www.glencoe.com/apps/eGlossary612/grade.php http://www.glencoe.com/apps/eGlossary612/grade.php o http://my.hrw.com/math06_07/nsmedia/tools/glossary/msm/glossary.html http://my.hrw.com/math06_07/nsmedia/tools/glossary/msm/glossary.html The Teaching Channel o https://www.teachingchannel.org/ https://www.teachingchannel.org/

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Other helpful websites Mathematics for English Language Learners Project ◦http://www.tsusmell.org/resources/mell-resources.htmhttp://www.tsusmell.org/resources/mell-resources.htm TODOS: Mathematics for ALL ◦http://www.todos-math.org/http://www.todos-math.org/ Center for the Mathematics Education of Latinos/as ◦http://math.arizona.edu/~cemela/english/http://math.arizona.edu/~cemela/english/ Supporting ELLs in Mathematics ◦ http://ell.stanford.edu/teaching_resources/math http://ell.stanford.edu/teaching_resources/math

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