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World War I 8,538,315 – lives lost 22 countries 1 world

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1 World War I 8,538,315 – lives lost 22 countries 1 world
673 - ships destroyed $186,333,637,000 – dollars spent World War I 22 countries 1 world

2 Basic Causes of World War I
The Congress of Vienna laid the foundation for a century of peace in Europe. Beginning in 1870, a series of forces began moving Europe towards war. These forces included a rising tide of Militarism, a complex system of entangling Alliances, Imperialism or increasingly dangerous colonial conflicts, and a growing spirit of Nationalism. The "Great War:' as it came at first to be called, was in every way a catastrophe. At the height of its power, Europe suddenly self-destructed. Industrial and imperial rivalries, rising nationalist sentiment, a rapidly intensifying arms race, ethnic tension - all of these contributed to the outbreak of hostilities in August Among the causes of World War I, however, sheer willfulness and stupidity should not be discounted.

3 Scientific & Technological Advancements
In the late 1800s and early 1900s, advances in science and technology led to dramatic changes in daily life.

4 Medicine Louis Pasteur (French scientist) – in 1870 made two important discoveries. He showed a link between germs and disease & proved that killing certain germs stops the spread of certain diseases.

5 Medicine Robert Koch (German physician) – discovered that bacteria caused tuberculosis.

6 Medicine The work of Pasteur and Koch established the germ theory of disease, the idea that many diseases are caused by the action of microorganisms. People started to wash more often and made other changes to limit the spread of disease.

7 Medicine Joseph Lister (English Surgeon) – insisted doctors use antiseptics, substances that destroy or inhibit the growth of germs caused by infections, on their hands, instruments, and on wounds. This was a turning point in medicine, and they greatly reduced the number of deaths from infection in hospitals.

8 Medicine Antibiotics – In 1928, an English scientist Alexander Fleming discovered that a mold called Penicillium killed germs. This paved the way for the development of a class of drugs called antibiotics that attacked or weakened the bacteria that caused many diseases.

9 Improved Standard of Living
Better Wages & Working Conditions – by the late 1800s labor unions had become legal in many countries of Europe. Over time wages and work conditions improved. People ate more varied diets and lived in cleaner, safer homes.

10 Improved Standard of Living
Better Homes – City governments paved streets and made cities better places to live. Architects began to use steel to construct stronger, taller buildings.

11 Improved Standard of Living
Improved Sanitation – underground sewage systems, introduced first in London and Paris, made cities healthier places to live. Waste no longer ran through the streets, spreading disease and polluting sources of drinking water.

12 New Inventions Electricity – by 1890 factories were powered by electricity. In homes, people used electricity to run appliances that made their lives more comfortable.

13 New Inventions Telephone – in 1876 Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone. This invention transformed long-distance communication.

14 New Inventions Radio – In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi sent radio signals directly through the air. The first radios transmitted Morse code signals. In 1906 the first voice broadcast over radio.

15 New Inventions The Automobile – In the 1870s Nikolaus Otto developed a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine. In the 1880s Gottlieb Daimler used Otto’s engine to power the first automobile.

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17 New Inventions By 1900, thousands of automobiles were on the road. Henry Ford’s development of the assembly line made the US a strong leader in the auto industry. In 1896, Henry Ford invented the Quadracycle. It was the first "horseless carriage" that he actually built. It was very different from today`s cars and even from what he produced a few years later, but in a way it`s the starting point of Ford`s career as a businessman. Until the Quadracycle, Ford`s tinkering had been experimental, theoretical-like the gas engine he built on his kitchen table in the 1890`s, which was just an engine with nothing to power. The Quadracycle showed enough popularity and potential that it launched the beginning of Ford`s business ventures. Ford Motor Company entered the business world on June 16, 1903, when Henry Ford and 11 business associates signed the company`s articles of incorporation. The first Ford, the Model A, was being sold in Detroit a few months later. With $28,000 in cash, the pioneering industrialists gave birth to what was to become one of the world`s largest corporations. Few companies are as closely identified with the history and development of industry and society throughout the 20th century as Ford Motor Company. Mass Production on the Line Perhaps Ford Motor Company`s single greatest contribution to automotive manufacturing was the moving assembly line. First implemented at the Highland Park plant (in Michigan, US) in 1913, the new technique allowed individual workers to stay in one place and perform the same task repeatedly on multiple vehicles that passed by them. The line proved tremendously efficient, helping the company far surpasses the production levels of their competitors-and making the vehicles more affordable.

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19 New Inventions The Airplane –
The internal combustion engine also allowed humans to fly. In 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first powered flight. "The first flights with the power-machine were made on the 17th of December, The first flight lasted only twelve seconds, but it was, the first in the history of the world in which a machine carrying a man had raised itself by its own power into the air in free flight, had sailed forward on a level course without reduction of speed, and had finally landed without being wrecked. The second and third flights were a little longer, and the fourth lasted fifty-nine seconds, covering a distance of 852 feet over the ground against a twenty-mile wind." Quote Orville and Wilbur Wright

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21 Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Other situations also set the stage for war. British relations with the empire became strained after Britain signed an agreement with Russia. On the other hand, Germany had taken an interest in establishing good relations with the Ottoman Empire.

22 The Armenian Massacres
Nationalistic feelings caused periodic waves of violence against Armenians since the 1890s. The violence was a result of the rivalry between Turkey and Russia. The Muslim Turks distrusted the Christian Armenians, believing that they supported Russia.

23 This was the spot where the war was sparked.
Europe’s Powder Keg The area of Bosnia in the Balkans was called this because it’s where the most tension between Serbia and Austria–Hungary. This was the spot where the war was sparked.

24 The Spark In 1914, Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were visiting Sarajevo. Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, of the Serbian Nationalist group called the Black Hand, and WWI began like this….

25 The Road To War Austria-Hungary made threats to Serbia, whom they blamed for the assassination and wanted to teach a lesson. Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia

26 Russia came in to protect Serbia because of its treaty.
The Road To War Russia came in to protect Serbia because of its treaty.

27 Germany entered to fulfill its treaty obligations to protect Austria.
The Road To War Germany entered to fulfill its treaty obligations to protect Austria.

28 The Road To War Finally Great Britain and France intervened to honor their alliance with Russia.

29 The Road To War What began a regional crisis in the Balkans had quickly escalated into a major European conflict.

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31 The Schlieffen’s Plan The plan was a strategy that General Von Schlieffen made up in 1905. Germany had enemies on the East and West. Schlieffen figured that Russia would be slow to mobilize. Schlieffen believed the Germans could reach Paris and defeat the French in six weeks and then focus on the Eastern Front.

32 The Schlieffen’s Plan There were a few problems with this plan:
Belgium was heavily fortified. Russia mobilized quicker than anticipated. The British aided the French forces in the north of France.

33 Western Front A line of trenches stretched along the war’s western front from the Swiss Alps to the English Channel. Millions of exploding artillery shells completely stripped the land down to bare ground.

34 Eastern Front Great Britain and France attempted to supply Russia. Naval/Army attacks in Turkey to gain control over waterways. Attempts for allies to control this region were unsuccessful. . Entrenchment and Stalemate The surprise awaiting all the participants was that their well-prepared plans for a quick and glorious war were going to sink into the mud of the trenches and vanish along the broad Eastern Front. A long and horrifying war of attrition lay ahead. The Agony of Total War World War I was a fully industrialized and mechanized war.

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36 M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI

37 New weapons were being created, giving the country a boost of pride.
M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI Militarism – Because of the Alliance System countries began to build up their armies. New weapons were being created, giving the country a boost of pride. Countries began to increase the numbers of members in the armies and navies.

38 Technology Changes Warfare

39 French troops loading a 40cm shell
German Machineengewehr 08 (Maxim). British 60-pounder WWI Tank French troops loading a 40cm shell

40 Alliance systems are defense agreements among nations.
M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI Alliances – Alliance systems are defense agreements among nations.

41 Triple Alliance v. Triple Entente

42 Triple Alliance (The Central Powers)
In 1879 Germany and Austria-Hungary agreed to form a Dual Alliance. This became the Triple Alliance when in 1882 it was expanded to include Italy. The three countries agreed to support each other if attacked by either France or Russia.

43 Triple Entente (The Allies)
France and Britain felt threatened by the Dual Alliance and in 1904 the two countries signed the Entente Cordiale (friendly understanding). The objective of the alliance was to protect against the perceived threat of Germany. Three years later, Russia joined Britain and France to form the Triple Entente.

44 One of the factors that added to the increasing rivalry in Europe.
M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI Imperialism One of the factors that added to the increasing rivalry in Europe. Great Britain, France, and Germany competed for economic expansion in Africa. In the Middle East, the crumbling Ottoman Empire was alluring to Austria-Hungary, Bosnia, and Russia.

45 M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI Nationalism –
During the 1800s, this force swept through Europe that helped bring up the first World War. Nationalism grabbed the interest of people who shared language, history, or culture. These people began to think of themselves as a nation or a national group.

46 M.A.I.N. Causes of WWI Nationalism – Nationalism weakened the power of empires like Austria-Hungary, Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

47 Trench Warfare By early 1915 the war on the Western Front had turned into a deadly war of attrition. To protect themselves soldiers on both sides dug trenches. Two parallel trenches stretched about 500 miles in an unbroken line. Land mines and barbed wire protected the areas in front of the trench. Soldiers lived in the trench for weeks at a time.

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52 Total War World War I was a fully industrialized and mechanized war. Military leaders were unprepared for the impact of these weapons on outmoded strategic notions. The need for full industrial support for each nation's war effort ultimately required the mobilization of entire societies. Whether democratic or not, the nations involved came to implement a national coordinate that was almost totalitarian in nature. Even by 1915 casualty levels were terrifying and the war had already touched many local communities as men were injured, killed in action or simply posted as missing. The war touched all regardless, from mill workers sons serving as riflemen to the mill owning gentry who's sons died leading from the front as junior officers. A full generation was well on the way to being wiped out but still the newspapers cheered the volunteers and called for more to join them

53 20th century technology was what made WWI the colossal bloodbath it became. For example, the war saw the first widespread use in actual combat of the machine gun, which increased firepower to over 600 rounds per minute. German U-Boats or submarines threatened Britain's naval supremacy.

54 Approx. 8 million people were killed or died from starvation in WWI
Approx. 8 million people were killed or died from starvation in WWI. Millions of others died in the influenza epidemic, which was made vastly worse by the war. Among the millions of soldiers killed in the war were husbands and fathers who left behind wives and children. World War I was “total war”, war in which literally every man, woman, and child was involved, and every part of society was mobilized – including all of industry, agriculture, the press, schools, churches, magazines, newspapers, film, theater and every other major institution.

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56 This soldier is able to write a letter home because of the help from a Red Cross volunteer.

57 For Total War governments…
Drafted men to fight in the war. Raised taxes and borrowed money to pay for the war. Rationed, or limited the supply of goods, at home so the military could be provided for. Women took jobs at home that the soldiers left behind.

58 Propaganda Governments used the press to spread ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause

59 Turning Points of WWI Russian Withdrawal – low morale contributed to a revolution in Early in 1918, Russia’s new leader signed a treaty with Germany that took Russia out of the war.

60 Turning Points of WWI Entry of the United States – The US tried to remain neutral in the war. Germans use of unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmermann Telegram brought the US into the war in April 1917. The entry of the US helped the Allies win the war. USW – they attacked any ships in the Atlantic, even if they were carrying American passengers. Woodrow Wilson Zimmermann

61 The Cost of War More than 8.5 million people died.
More than 17 million people wounded. Famine threatened many regions. Disease was widespread in many regions.

62 The Treaty of Versailles
In January 1919, the victorious Allies gathered at the palace of Versailles. Although there were other countries present – the main players were the Big Four British Prime Minister David Lloyd George French Leader Georges Clemenceau US President Woodrow Wilson Italy Premier – Vittorio Orlando

63 Italy Great Britain France US
Vittorio Orlando, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau, & Woodrow Wilson Italy Great Britain France US

64 The Treaty of Versailles
Woodrow Wilson (US) Stressed self-determination, by which people would choose their own government & create a world organization that would guarantee peace in the future.

65 The Treaty of Versailles
Britain and France wanted to punish Germany and be sure that it would never again become a threat. In the end, Britain and France guided the ideas of the Treaty of Versailles

66 Harsh Provisions for Germany
TERRITORIAL LOSSES Land was taken from Germany. Some was used to create the new country of Poland. Alsace ~ Lorraine were returned to France. Germany also lost many of its overseas colonies.

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69 Harsh Provisions for Germany
MILITARY RESTRICTIONS Germany’s army and navy were limited. Germany had to remove troops from the Rhineland.

70 Harsh Provisions for Germany
WAR GUILT Germany was forced to accept full responsibility for the war and pay huge reparations. Accepting blame and paying the reparations caused bitterness in Germany

71 League of Nations A group of 40 countries that hoped to settle problems through negotiation, not war. The member countries promised to take cooperative economic and military action against any aggressor state. Even though the League was Wilson’s concept, the United States never joined.

72 League of Nations Building in Geneva 1937-1946
'The secret diplomacy of the old order would be replaced by...open discussion' The Palaise Wilson, headquarters of the League of Nations Secretariat from in Geneva

73 BREAK-UP AUSTRIA~HUNGARY
Collapse of Empires BREAK-UP AUSTRIA~HUNGARY The war caused Austria-Hungary to collapse. Several new nations were created out of the old empire. Austria and Hungary became independent nations. Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were formed. Italy and Romania each gained land.

74 BREAK-UP OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Collapse of Empires BREAK-UP OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE The empire collapsed in Most of the Arab lands were placed under British and French control. The Allies were adding to their empires. The remainder of the empire became the country of Turkey.

75 Unfulfilled National Goals
Many nations were dissatisfied with the results of World War I. Various groups felt their goals had NOT been achieved.

76 Germany was horrified by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles

77 Italy hoped to gain more land than it received
Italy hoped to gain more land than it received. It made a secret treaty with the Allies that was not fulfilled.

78 Japan was angry because the Allies did not recognize its claims in China.

79 China was angry that Japan had been given control over former possessions in China.

80 Russia was angry over the reestablishment of Poland and the creation of Estonia, Lithuania, on lands that had been apart of the Russian empire.

81 Nations and groups waited and watched hoping for a chance to change events in their favor….

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