Presentation on theme: "The study of Carbon and its compounds"— Presentation transcript:
1 The study of Carbon and its compounds Organic ChemistryThe study of Carbon and its compounds
2 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY The study of compounds containing Carbon atoms. Carbon has 4 valence electrons, always draw it with 4 covalent bonds around it.When it forms all single bonds the shape of around the carbon is TETRAHEDRAL.
3 Properties Solubility Most nonpolar (like dissolves like) Most compounds are insoluble in waterSoluble in non-polar solventsOHO
4 Properties Most are non-electrolytes Covalent, no conductivity (an exception is organic acids)
6 Properties Rate of Reaction Slower than inorganic compounds High activation energy
7 Properties C Bonding Nonpolar covalent Carbon has 4 valance electrons- tetrahedronCarbon can bond with itself indefinitely (in dif. shapes, many variations)Always make 4 bondsC
8 HYDROCARBONS Compounds containing only C and H. 3 open chain families ALKANESALKENESALKYNES
9 Homologous Series or families Group of related compounds in which each member differs from the next by one carbon and 2 hydrogens
10 Alkanes Single-bonded hydrocarbons Hydrocarbon= only carbon and hydrogen atomsIUPAC name Molecular Formula Generic Formulamethane CH4ethane C2H6propane C3H8butane C4H10pentane C5H12hexane C6H CnH2n+2heptane C7H16octane C8H18nonane C9H20decane C10H22As the molecular size and dispersion forces increase, the boiling point and freezing point increase
13 Alkenes have one Double-bonded hydrocarbon Unsaturated Same prefix as alkanes, with suffix -eneDienes contain TWO double bonds, and are not alkenes!
14 Alkynes one Triple-bonded hydrocarbon Unsaturated Same prefix as alkanes, and alkenes, with suffix -yne
15 Saturated vs Unsaturated compounds Single BondsDouble/Triple Bonds
16 Cyclic Hydrocarbons Benzene 6 carbon atoms in a ring Aromatic HydrocarbonOnly structure really needs to be known for the regents.
17 How to draw and name different organic compounds? ISOMERS
18 IsomersAlthough these structures look different, they both have the same molecular formula of C4 H10Compounds with:the same molecular formulasdifferent structural formulasC4 H10Normal Butane2-Methyl Propane
19 ISOMERSSame molecular formula but different structural formula. Have different chemical and physical properties.
20 Alkyl Groups Have 1 less hydrogen (H) than the corresponding alkane Ex:Methyl CH31 less H than CH4Ethyl C2H51 less H than C2H62-Methyl Propane3-ethylpentane
21 Rules for naming organic compounds For Straight or continuous chains: normal form n-alkanes.For branched compounds:1.Find the longest continuous chain and name the compound.Branches are alkyl groups and end with –yl. 2. The location of the alkyl group is determined by assigning numbers to the carbon atoms of the longest chain, beginning at the end that will give the lowest number to the carbon that contains the alkyl or special group.
22 Drawing Rules Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 It’s as easy as 1, 2, 3…. -ane, Alkane:draw all single bonds-ene, Alkene:except draw a double on the number carbon that is present in the name-yne, Alkyne:except draw a triple bond on the number carbon that is present in the nameMake sure all carbons have 4 bonds
23 1st Task: Draw Hexane CCCCCC Condensed Formula: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH31st Task:Hexane-ane = only single bondsHexaneCCCCCC
24 2nd Task: Draw 1-Pentene 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 -ane, Alkane: -ane, Alkane:draw all single bonds-ene, Alkene:except draw a double on the number carbon that the prefix shows-yne, Alkyne:except draw a triple bond on the number carbon that the prefix shows2nd Task:-ene, Alkene:draw all single bondsexcept draw a double on the number carbon that the prefix shows
25 3rd Task: Draw 2-butyne -ane, Alkane: draw all single bonds -ene, Alkene:except draw a double on the number carbon that the prefix shows-yne, Alkyne:except draw a triple bond on the number carbon that the prefix shows3rd Task:-yne, Alkyne:draw all single bondsexcept draw a triple bond on the number carbon that the prefix shows
31 Halides (Halocarbons) A halide is formed when one or more halogen elements attach themselves to a chain of carbons atomsHalogen include all the elements in group 17
32 H H H H C C C H H Naming Halocarbons Halocarbons are usually formed from AlkenesThis is because the double bonds that are present break; leaving empty bonds on the carbons where the halogens are now able to formHHHHCCCHHDouble Bond
33 1,2-DiFluoropropane H H H H C C C H H F F Naming Halocarbons Every halogen has its own prefix to put at the beginning of its nameIt is listed in Table RWhen the bonds brake;the halogens fill the empty space1,2-DiFluoropropaneHHHHCCCHHFF
35 AlcoholsContain 1 less Hydrogen and in its place there is an –OH group instead.Even though alcohols have an –OH group, they are not a considered a base.This is because there are covalent bonds holding the –OH to the carbons and bases don’t have covalent bonds present on the –OH.When in solution, acids only release and H+ and bases release OH-HHHCCHHHOH
36 H H Ethanol H C C H O H H H Naming Alcohols You start with Alkane. (In this case, Methane)Take away one of the Hydrogen atoms.Add an –OH group to the empty spaceFor the name; drop the –e at the end of the prefix (Methane) and add –ol to name the Alcohol!HHEthanolHCCHOHHH
38 EtherIn an ether, there is always an oxygen atom in between two carbons.And there can be any number of carbons on each side of the oxygen.HHHHCCOCHHH
39 H H H H C C O C H Methyl Ethyl Ether H H H Naming EthersCount the amount of carbons on the left side of the Oxygen first.Count the number of carbons on the right side of the oxygen.The carbons on the left make Methyl and the carbons on the right make Ethyl, then put Ether at the end.HHHHCCOCHMethyl Ethyl EtherHHH
45 KetoneKetones can be identified by the oxygen double bonded to a carbon in the middle of a carbon chain.HHOHHCCCHCHHH
46 Butan one e H H O H H C C C H C H H H Name a KetoneWe have a chain of carbons (4=butane)If the double bonded oxygen is found in the middle of a carbon chain then it is a ketone and the –e must be dropped and add –one in its placeButanoneeHHOHHCCCHCHHH
48 H H O H C C C H O H H Organic Acids!!!!!! Contains a double bonded oxygen and an –OH to the last carbon in the chainCalled acids because H+ ions are released when dissolved in waterSince ions are present when dissolved, an electric current can be conducted through the waterOrganic acids are electrolytes!HHOHCCCHOHH
49 Hexan oic Acid e O H H H H H H H C C C C C C H H O H H H H H H Name the acidForm the AcidStart with the carbon chainREMOVE: -eHexaneDrop off the three hydrogen atoms at the end of the chainADD: -oic AcidHexanoic AcideAdd a double bonded oxygen atom and an –OH group to the open carbon atomAND THERE YOU HAVE IT!!OHHHHHHHCCCCCCHHOHHHHHH
51 H H H O H H C C C C O C H H H H H Ester And Esters smell goood!!Esters have two oxygen atoms presentOne is connected by double bonds to a carbon atomThe other is connected by single bonds but to two carbon atomsAn ester is formed from the reaction of an acid and an alcohol.HHHOHHCCCCOCHHHHH
52 Meth yl Butan oate H H H O H H C C C C O C H H H H H -count the number of carbons on the side that is only touching one carbon.Title it!-Add –yl as the suffix.MethylButanoate-Now count the number of carbons in the chain attached to the two oxygen atoms.-All that’s left if to add –oate to the endHHHOHHCCCCOCHHHHH
65 1.Combustion TABLE I the first 6 rx are combustions Burning (reaction with oxygen)Hydrocarbons burn to form carbon dioxide and waterOrganic (hydrocarbon) + O CO2 +H20heatIn a limited supply of oxygen, C and CO are formedTest to show if there is Carbon Dioxide: Limewater (colorless) turns a milky white color with Carbon dioxide
66 2. SubstitutionReplacement of one or more hydrogens in a saturated hydrocarbon by an halogen.Alkane + halogen(X2) halocarbon + HX(g)+ F2+ HFF
67 3.AdditionAdding one or more atoms at a double/ triple bond . Could be Hydrogenation (add H)Or Halogenation (add halogens)For alkenes and alkynes!+ F2F FHH
68 4.Esterification Acid and alcohol produce ester and water Fats are Esters dervied from glycerol (a trihydroxy alcohol- has 3 OH groups) and long fatty acids
69 GlycerolFats are Esters derived from glycerol (a trihydroxy alcohol- has 3 OH groups) and long fatty acids
70 Fat + Strong Base Soap + Glycerol 5.Saponification(hydrolysis) Ester breaks up into Acid and Alcohol (reverse of esterification)Produces soapFat + Strong Base Soap + Glycerol
72 7 POLYMERIZATIONPolymers are made of chains of smaller units called MONOMERSNATURAL POLYMERSProtein, starches, celluloseSYNTHETIC POLYMERSNylon, rayon, polyethylene
73 7.PolymerizationSmall molecules join together to form bigger molecules (monomers to polymer)amino acid + amino acid + amino acid proteinmonomer + monomer + monomer polymer
74 Polymerization 2 Types: Condensation Polymerization: Dehydration synthesis, occur when water is remove from primary alcohols. Have ether or ether linkages.Make water and polymerNaturalProtein (DNA)StarchcelluloseArtificialNylonPolyestersilicone
75 n n Addition Polymerization Monomers join together by breaking a double/triple bondnnnumber of ethene join together number of polyethylene
76 Finding missing reactants and products in Organic Reactions # of atoms on the left side of the arrow must equal # on the rightAfter the elements/compounds are correctly written, change the coefficientEx:C2H6 + Cl C2H5Cl + ______HCl
77 Practice Regents Questions Go online to regentsprep.org!