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The War Against the Jews 1933 ~ 1945. “I will employ my strength for the welfare of the German people, protect the Constitution and laws of the German.

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Presentation on theme: "The War Against the Jews 1933 ~ 1945. “I will employ my strength for the welfare of the German people, protect the Constitution and laws of the German."— Presentation transcript:

1 The War Against the Jews 1933 ~ 1945

2 “I will employ my strength for the welfare of the German people, protect the Constitution and laws of the German people, conscientiously discharge the duties imposed on me and conduct my affairs of office impartially and with justice to everyone” January 30 th, 1933 – Adolf Hitler

3 Adolf Hitler, seated center right, celebrates with members of his cabinet on January 30, 1933, the day he was appointed Prime Minister of Germany.

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7 During the April 1933 boycott, two SA members guard the entrance to a Jewish-owned leather-goods shop. The sign reads "No respectable German shops here!"

8 Enabling Act, On March 23, 1933, Hitler obtained a majority of the Reichstag and passed the Enabling Act, a law that authorized the government to issue legislation on its own responsibility, even if the laws deviated from the Reich Constitution.

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10 Nazi Concentration Camps In 1933, ten concentration camps were set up in Germany - the first at Dachau - at first for the purpose of imprisoning political opponents of the regime and then for specific victims, such as Jews and homosexuals. The concentration camps were intended not only to break the prisoners as individuals and to spread terror among the rest of the population, but also to provide the Gestapo with a training ground, a way of conditioning them so that they would lose all familiar human emotions and attitudes. In talks with a Nazi leader even before he became chancellor, Hitler had said: "We must be ruthless...Only thus shall we purge our people of their softness...and their degenerate delight in beer-swilling...I don't want the concentration camps transformed into penitentiaries. Terror is the most effective political instrument...It is my duty to make use of every means of training the German people to cruelty, and to prepare them for war...There must be no weakness or tenderness."

11 the Law for Restoration of the Professional Civil Service On April 7 th, 1933 the first anti- Jewish decree was made, the Law for Restoration of the Professional Civil Service passed. This provided for the dismissal of “non- Aryan” civil servants (clerical employees, workers and professionals). War veterans were excepted because of an appeal made by President Von Hindenburg.

12 definition of “non-Aryan” status On April 11 th,1933 a definition of “non-Aryan” status was provided. Law Against the Overcrowding of German Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning On April 25 th,1933 the Law Against the Overcrowding of German Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning was established. 1.5 % of non-Aryans was the admissible quota.

13 The party has become the state.” By early July the NSDAP – the Nazi Party – was the only political party in town. Hitler declared on July 8 th, 1933 “The party has become the state.” On July 14 th, 1933 a government decree legally declared the Nazi Party to be only Political Party in Germany.

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15 “ We shall only be able to combat the falsehoods abroad if we get at those who originated them or at those Jews living in Germany who have thus far remained unmolested. We must proceed to a large- scale boycott of all Jewish business in Germany. Perhaps the foreign Jews will think better of the matter when their racial comrades in Germany begin to get in the neck ” Josef Goebbels, Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

16 Front page of Der Stürmer, a Nazi publication, showing a cartoon depicting Jews as instigators of rebellion, June 1934.

17 On September 15 th,1935 two new laws were passed in Nuremberg: Reich Citizenship Law The Law for Protection of German Blood and German Honor &

18 Reich Citizenship Law Citizenship was awarded to only subjects of “German or kindred blood”. A later decree (Nov. 14, 1935) to this law addressed the unsettling status of offspring marriages between Jews and “Aryans”, designated as Mischlinge (“hybrids”). This law also removed the exemptions from war veterans.

19 A motorcyclist on a village outskirts takes in a sign proclaiming "Jews are not welcomed here," circa 1935.

20 The Law for Protection of German Blood and German Honor 1.Forbids sexual relations between Jews & Germans – there were severe penalties for violators. 2.Further punishments for Mischlinge were established. 3.The enactment of these laws isolated Jews from the general population of Germany

21 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany

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23 German citizens give the Nazi salute to Hitler during opening-day ceremonies at the 11th Olympiad in Berlin, August 1936.

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25 Buchenwald concentration camp was opened in July 1937.

26 Newly arrived prisoners gather for registration at the Buchenwald concentration camp, 1937.

27 March 13, Adolf Hitler, Führer of Germany, accepts salutes and cheers from the Nazi controlled Reichstag after announcing the Anschluss (union) with Austria. Immediately after the Anschluss, Nazis began a brutal crackdown on Austrian Jews, arresting them and publicly humiliating them.

28 Austrian Nazis and local residents watch as Jews are forced to get on their hands and knees and scrub the pavement.

29 In Vienna, pedestrians view a sign posted on a restaurant window informing the public this business is run by an organization of the National Socialist Party and that Jews are not welcome.

30 German Takeover of Sudetenland

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37 Kristallnacht “The Night of Broken Glass”

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40 The burned-out synagogue of Aachen, Germany, one of nearly 200 synagogues destroyed during Kristallnacht.

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42 The Voyage of the St. Louis

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44 Hartheim Institute, one of six hospitals and nursing facilities where the Nazis carried out their euthanasia program, killing children and adults by gassing, shooting, and lethal injection.

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46 November 23, Wearing of the yellow Jewish Star of David was made compulsory throughout occupied Poland.

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50 Ghettoization (December 1939 to March 1942)

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55 Zyklon-B, the gas used to kill Jews in the concentration camps

56 It is good that we are preceded by an aura of terror for our plans to exterminate Jewry." Adolf Hitler (to Heydrich and Himmler) October 25, 1941.

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58 Einsatzgruppen or "Special Action Squads" Specially trained units of the S.S. followed the first wave of German army troops in the invasion of the Soviet Union (June 1941). Their orders were to execute on the spot all Communists, Jews, and Gypsies. It is estimated that by the end of 1942, they had killed more than a million Soviet Jews. These victims were shot or loaded into enclosed trucks modified for the introduction of carbon monoxide to asphyxiate its victims. An additional 400,000 were killed by other S.S. units, anti-Semitic native civilians, police units, and the German army.

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60 During the Holocaust, Hitler’s Nazis killed 6 million Jews and 5 million other “non-Aryans.” The violence against Jews during the Holocaust led to the founding of Israel after World War II. Overview Assessment Aryans Holocaust Kristallnacht ghettos “Final Solution” genocide The Holocaust 3 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME

61 The Holocaust 3 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Give examples of Nazi persecutions. Section 3 Assessment continued... HOME Nazi Persecutions Nuremberg Laws Genocide of Jews Persecution of gypsies, Poles, Russians, homosexuals, the insane, the disabled, the ill Concentration camps Burning of Jewish businesses, homes, and synagogues

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64 Gypsies A Gypsy couple at the Belzec concentration camp.

65 An Auschwitz warehouse full of shoes and clothes taken from prisoners gassed upon their arrival.

66 Bales of hair cut from female prisoners, discovered at Auschwitz following its liberation in January 1945.

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69 Three young survivors stand behind a barbed-wire fence at Buchenwald, April 1945.

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