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ESPON / CAEE - Manchester Seminar

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Presentation on theme: "ESPON / CAEE - Manchester Seminar"— Presentation transcript:

1 ESPON / CAEE - Manchester Seminar
2/3 December 2010 Lyon Case Study Gilles Pinson, Lise Maitrallet, Christelle Morel-Journel Sciences-Po Lyon – Université Jean Monnet de Saint-Etienne Triangle (UMR 5206) – EVS (UMR 5600)

2 1. Lyon: situation and main features
Population: Lyon: 0.48 M Grand Lyon: 1.4 M Aire urbaine de Lyon: 1.75 M Région urbaine de Lyon: 2.9 M 2nd largest French urban region; 2nd economic pole Region Rhône-Alpes (5.46 M): 1st French industrial region

3 2. Lyon: economic, social and spatial change
Sprawl, reurbanisation and polarisation (Greater Lyon) Population evolution from 1975 to 2006 (INSEE) 1975 1982 1990 1999 2006

4 2. Lyon: economic, social and spatial change
Economic geography (Greater Lyon): Global raise in jobs number (metropolitanisation) Decentralisation of jobs and industries towards East Core cities (Lyon, Villeurbanne) and eastern working and middle classes communes are were jobs are located

5 2. Lyon: economic, social and spatial change
Economic geography (Greater Lyon): Decrease of industrial jobs (from 43% of workforce in 1975 to 19% in 2006) A transfer of industries eastbound A raise of the share of services jobs (from 56% in 1975 to 81 % in 2006) A development of services jobs westbound

6 2. Lyon: economic, social and spatial change
The Greater Lyon economic structure today: a strong “provincial” city-region Banal services: a poor share of “emplois métropolitains supérieurs” (best qualified and paid jobs) in Lyons / in Paris ; a share of 10.6% in 1999 (lower than in Toulouse, Grenoble or Montpellier) ; in progress Among the 15 first employers: hospitals, local authorities, postal services, public transports, utilities, welfare institutions, supermarkets Unbalanced industrial structures A few “engines” (usually linked with external capital) A dominance of very small subcontractors SMEs The lack of big territorialized SMEs

7 2. Lyon: economic, social and spatial change
The Greater Lyon economic structure today: a strong “provincial” city-region Diversity of the productive base but several specializations closely linked to an history of precocious industrialization Trucks manufacturing (Renault Trucks, IVECO, Irisbus), heritage of Berliet Chemicals (Rhodia, Arkema, Ciba, Bluestar Silicones, Total), heritage of textile industry (silkmaking) Biotechnologies (Aventis Pasteur, BioMérieux, Mérial), heritage of the Mérieux empire (a collaborator of Pasteur) (industrial biology, public health, vaccines)

8 2. Lyon: economic, social and spatial change
How have agglomeration economies shaped the geography of economic activity ? Agglomeration or cluster trends are not a brand new phenomenon Current clusters were already existing 50 years ago For each key sectors, there are several location and not single agglomeration focus Agglomeration logics are determined by dominant actors structuring their own subcontractors networks Rather than by the interactions between firms of the same level (SMEs, « milieux innovateurs », technopolitan systems) Location of Biotechnologies firms

9 3. Public policies and governance framework
A supportive national context Early policies in favour of “second cities” (DATAR policies of “métropoles d’équilibre”) Key decisions made my the central State in terms of infrastructures (TGV, highways, etc.) Decentralisation Constitutive policies: State/Regions Planning Contracts Promotion of Inter-municipal cooperation Authoritative creation of Communautés Urbaines in the late 1960’s A new wave of inter-municipal integration in the early 2000’s Recently, Cluster policy (Pôles de compétitivité) 5 poles in Lyon, 2 in Saint-Etienne


11 3. Public policies and governance framework
A strong technical capacity at city regional-level The Greater Lyon (inter-municipal cooperation organisation): High degree of fiscal autonomy Wide range of functions operated: from planning and visioning to policies and services delivering Strong technical resources The recent takeover of economic development Satellites and partners: Planning Agency, Chamber of Commerce, ADERLY, RUL A strong political leadership (the mayor of Lyon is the president of the Greater Lyon)

12 3. Public policies and governance framework
Multi-level governance, institutional thickness and the capacity to build up narratives The French “fusion model” of policymaking Strong State field services Three (even four) tiers system: commune, département, region (+inter-municipal cooperation devices) Strong officials (multiple office holding) Coproduction is the norm (contract, co-financing, etc.) The strength of redundancy Overlap of functions Multiple scale of data gathering, planning, visioning and mobilising Both generate competition and conflicts but also knowledge and institutional thickness



15 4. Key questions “Truly bounded” vs. “coalitions of the willing”
The Lyons case tends to prove the efficiency of the latter But Raises the problem of accountability Is threatened by a government project to create a new “Métropole” status Power and resources of metro arrangements A central political and technical actor (Grand Lyon) A strong degree of fiscal autonomy ; resources mainly obtained from business taxes Tax reforms that tend to replace local taxes revenues by State transfers (and to cut the link between local authorities and economic development)

16 4. Key questions The role of national government ?
Forced modernisation and then constitutive policies Strong State field services and involvement of the “local State” in local projects But : A current fascination for the British “hands off model” and New Public management recipes

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