Presentation on theme: "1- Infancy and Childhood"— Presentation transcript:
11- Infancy and Childhood Unit 4sections:1- Infancy and Childhood2- Adolescence3- Adulthood and AgingEQ: What are the cognitive, physical, emotional, and social changes that take place during the human life span?
2Developmental Psychology The study of how people grow and change through lifeNature v. NurtureMaturationbaby signingCritical periodsTabula rasa
3Physical Development Sensory – motor development Automatic Rooting Babinski ReflexNeurological disordersRootingSensory – motor developmentInfancy – approx. 3Eye movement / focusGraspingLifting headSitting / crawling / standingNext stage – fine motor skillsHand-eye coordination
4Social Development Children are very ego-centric Attachment Develop self-concept through the caregiverAttachmentStranger anxietySeparation anxietyContact ComfortHarlow’s MonkeysIsolationattachmentImprintingCritical periodEx: Fly Away Home
5Secure vs Insecure Attachment Parents are affectionate and reliableChildren bonded to caregiversInsecureParents are unresponsive and unreliableLittle reaction to parent’s presence or absenceChildren cry often to convey anger; act out
6Parenting Styles Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive Parent has total control – results in severe dependence or resistance to authority, low self-esteem, depressionAuthoritativeShared decision making, 60% - 40%, - results in a well adjusted childPermissiveChild has control; abandonment issues, risky behavior, low self-esteem, depression
7Child Care, Abuse & Neglect StatisticsFactsHealth risks increaseAsthmaAnxietyCoronary diseaseCancerSocietal / relationship / addiction problems‘Discipline’ controversyIs childhood obesity the new face of neglect?
8Self-concept Parental mental health impact The value or worth that people attach to themselvesUnconditional positive regard v conditionalstill face experimentParental mental health impactDuring pregnancyObservationalBullyingLow esteem – more likely to bully or be bullied
9Cognitive Development Noticed a pattern in developmentTermed “assimilation” and “accommodation”every child goes through a “sequence” of development, constantly changing their perceptionsJean Piaget
10Piaget’s stage theorySensorimotor - birth-2, world is learned through sensesexplorationno object permanencePreoperational - 2-7, world becomes symbolic, but one dimensionalego-centriclanguage acquisitionno conservation
11Piaget’s Stage theoryConcrete Operational, 7-11, first signs of adult thinkingtwo dimensionalconservation understoodCan think logically, but only with practical aidsStop-by-step, guidanceFormal Operations, 11 & up, many do not fully attainLogic / abstract reasoning
12Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development Pre-conventional - through the age of nineMotivated by pleasure / pain1. obedience and punishment driven2. self-interest driven (what’s in it for me?)Conventional - ends around 16Acceptance of rules and standards of one’s group3. win approval - interpersonal conformity4. authority and social order obedience drivenPost-conventionalEthical Principals5. Social contract & Prior rights (mutual respect)6. Universal ethics - equality and worth of all human beings
14Physical changes growth spurts; growing pains sexual development primary and secondary changesEarly v. late maturation and self-esteem
15Social Development Peer relationships peer pressure parents & independencepeers &affiliationpeer pressurepositive or negative influencesrole of parenting?Popularity?dating /romantic relationshipswhat role? What limits?
16Identity formation Termed by Erik Erikson life is a series of “tests” and the main “test” for teens is to establish identityachieved through choosing and developing commitmentsif not successful, no real sense of self…confusionshould result in identity crisis - examine values
17Analogy of the Jacket by Basia Parents DNA weaves the fabricEarly years cut the clothElementary school shape the jacketMiddle school – experimentHigh school – tailor to fitFuture - - constantly hem, and patch, and fix but comfortable.
18Marcia & Identity status Identity moratoriumdelay decision making, but still considering optionsIdentity foreclosureID commitment based on the opinions of othersIdentity diffusionno clear idea of self; no attempt or unwillingOverwhelmed - - so will not think about it.Identity achievementafter exploring options, identification self arrived
19Challenges of Adolescence Working - can aid in ID developmentHowever:non-transferable skillsresults in negative work attitudespending patterns self centeredeffect on gradesDating – identifying likes / dislikes in future partnerToo much, too soon?Lose identity?
20Challenges continued Eating disorders Substance abuse…. Anorexia Nervosaover 90% female, why?avoid adult responsibility or assert control?BulimiaSubstance abuse….
21Now back to theory……We started with childhood development, and now finished adolescent development.Next we move to adulthood and aging.BUT, before we do, let’s revisit Erik Erikson.His 8 stage theory blends all three sections.
22Erik Erikson -Psychosocial Development Trust v. mistrust - world perceptionAutonomy v. shame and doubt -desire to make choicesInitiative v. guilt - becoming “active”Industry v inferiority - productivity & worthIdentity v role confusion - career objectivesIntimacy v. Isolation - commitmentGenerativity v Stagnation - needing to be neededIntegrity v Despair - was life well lived?