Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 sections: 1- Infancy and Childhood 2- Adolescence 3- Adulthood and Aging EQ: What are the cognitive, physical, emotional, and social changes that."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 4 sections: 1- Infancy and Childhood 2- Adolescence 3- Adulthood and Aging EQ: What are the cognitive, physical, emotional, and social changes that take place during the human life span?
Developmental Psychology The study of how people grow and change through life Nature v. Nurture –Maturation baby signing –Critical periods –Tabula rasa
Physical Development Automatic –Babinski Reflex Neurological disorders –Rooting Sensory – motor development –Infancy – approx. 3 Eye movement / focus Grasping Lifting head Sitting / crawling / standing –Next stage – fine motor skills Hand-eye coordination
Social Development Children are very ego-centric –Develop self-concept through the caregiver Attachment –Stranger anxiety –Separation anxiety Contact Comfort –Harlows Monkeys –IsolationIsolation –attachmentattachment Imprinting –Critical period Ex:Fly Away Home
Secure vs Insecure Attachment Secure: –Parents are affectionate and reliable –Children bonded to caregivers Insecure –Parents are unresponsive and unreliable –Little reaction to parents presence or absence –Children cry often to convey anger; act out
Parenting Styles Authoritarian –Parent has total control – results in severe dependence or resistance to authority, low self- esteem, depression Authoritative –Shared decision making, 60% - 40%, - results in a well adjusted child Permissive –Child has control; abandonment issues, risky behavior, low self-esteem, depression
Child Care, Abuse & Neglect Statistics Facts Health risks increase –Asthma –Anxiety –Coronary disease –Cancer Societal / relationship / addiction problems Discipline controversy Is childhood obesity the new face of neglect?
Self-concept The value or worth that people attach to themselves –Unconditional positive regard v conditional still face experiment Parental mental health impact –During pregnancy –Observational Bullying –Low esteem – more likely to bully or be bullied
Cognitive Development Noticed a pattern in development Termed assimilation and accommodation every child goes through a sequence of development, constantly changing their perceptions Jean Piaget
Piagets stage theory Sensorimotor - birth-2, world is learned through senses –exploration –no object permanence Preoperational - 2-7, world becomes symbolic, but one dimensional –ego-centric –language acquisition –no conservation
Piagets Stage theory Concrete Operational, 7-11, first signs of adult thinking –two dimensional –conservation understood –Can think logically, but only with practical aids Stop-by-step, guidance Formal Operations, 11 & up, many do not fully attain –Logic / abstract reasoning
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development Pre-conventional - through the age of nine –Motivated by pleasure / pain 1. obedience and punishment driven 2. self-interest driven (whats in it for me?) Conventional - ends around 16 –Acceptance of rules and standards of ones group 3. win approval - interpersonal conformity 4. authority and social order obedience driven Post-conventional –Ethical Principals 5. Social contract & Prior rights (mutual respect) 6. Universal ethics - equality and worth of all human beings
Physical changes growth spurts; growing pains sexual development –primary and secondary changes –Early v. late maturation and self- esteem
Social Development Peer relationships –parents & independence –peers &affiliation peer pressure –positive or negative influences role of parenting? –Popularity? dating /romantic relationships –what role? What limits?
Identity formation Termed by Erik Erikson –life is a series of tests and the main test for teens is to establish identity achieved through choosing and developing commitments –if not successful, no real sense of self…confusion –should result in identity crisis - examine values
Analogy of the Jacket by Basia Parents DNA weaves the fabric Early years cut the cloth Elementary school shape the jacket Middle school – experiment High school – tailor to fit Future - - constantly hem, and patch, and fix but comfortable.
Marcia & Identity status Identity moratorium –delay decision making, but still considering options Identity foreclosure –ID commitment based on the opinions of others Identity diffusion –no clear idea of self; no attempt or unwilling Overwhelmed - - so will not think about it. Identity achievement –after exploring options, identification self arrived
Challenges of Adolescence Working - can aid in ID development –However: non-transferable skills results in negative work attitude spending patterns self centered effect on grades Dating – identifying likes / dislikes in future partner –However: Too much, too soon? Lose identity?
Challenges continued Eating disorders –Anorexia Nervosa over 90% female, why? avoid adult responsibility or assert control? –Bulimia Substance abuse….
Now back to theory…… We started with childhood development, and now finished adolescent development. Next we move to adulthood and aging. BUT, before we do, lets revisit Erik Erikson. –His 8 stage theory blends all three sections.
Erik Erikson -Psychosocial Development 1.Trust v. mistrust - world perception 2.Autonomy v. shame and doubt -desire to make choices 3.Initiative v. guilt - becoming active 4.Industry v inferiority - productivity & worth 5.Identity v role confusion - career objectives 6.Intimacy v. Isolation - commitment 7.Generativity v Stagnation - needing to be needed 8.Integrity v Despair - was life well lived?
ADULTHOOD AND AGING
Young Adulthood Reassessment settling down *managing home/bills/career Marriage/ intimate relationships *Gardener vs. fantasy *Children? *how you view money divorce children of divorce
Late adulthood Physical changes –Programmed theory vs. Cellular Damage Cognitive changes –Senile Dementia –Alzheimer's Social changes –retirement and grand-parenting –living arrangements –Successful aging?
Death and Dying 5 Stages –Denial –Anger –Bargaining –Depression –Acceptance Giraffe Dying with Dignity –Hospice? Euthenasia? Living will? Funeral plans Bereavement