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1- Infancy and Childhood

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1 1- Infancy and Childhood
Unit 4 sections: 1- Infancy and Childhood 2- Adolescence 3- Adulthood and Aging EQ: What are the cognitive, physical, emotional, and social changes that take place during the human life span?

2 Developmental Psychology
The study of how people grow and change through life Nature v. Nurture Maturation baby signing Critical periods Tabula rasa

3 Physical Development Sensory – motor development Automatic Rooting
Babinski Reflex Neurological disorders Rooting Sensory – motor development Infancy – approx. 3 Eye movement / focus Grasping Lifting head Sitting / crawling / standing Next stage – fine motor skills Hand-eye coordination

4 Social Development Children are very ego-centric Attachment
Develop self-concept through the caregiver Attachment Stranger anxiety Separation anxiety Contact Comfort Harlow’s Monkeys Isolation attachment Imprinting Critical period Ex: Fly Away Home

5 Secure vs Insecure Attachment
Parents are affectionate and reliable Children bonded to caregivers Insecure Parents are unresponsive and unreliable Little reaction to parent’s presence or absence Children cry often to convey anger; act out

6 Parenting Styles Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive
Parent has total control – results in severe dependence or resistance to authority, low self-esteem, depression Authoritative Shared decision making, 60% - 40%, - results in a well adjusted child Permissive Child has control; abandonment issues, risky behavior, low self-esteem, depression

7 Child Care, Abuse & Neglect
Statistics Facts Health risks increase Asthma Anxiety Coronary disease Cancer Societal / relationship / addiction problems ‘Discipline’ controversy Is childhood obesity the new face of neglect?

8 Self-concept Parental mental health impact
The value or worth that people attach to themselves Unconditional positive regard v conditional still face experiment Parental mental health impact During pregnancy Observational Bullying Low esteem – more likely to bully or be bullied

9 Cognitive Development
Noticed a pattern in development Termed “assimilation” and “accommodation” every child goes through a “sequence” of development, constantly changing their perceptions Jean Piaget

10 Piaget’s stage theory Sensorimotor - birth-2, world is learned through senses exploration no object permanence Preoperational - 2-7, world becomes symbolic, but one dimensional ego-centric language acquisition no conservation

11 Piaget’s Stage theory Concrete Operational, 7-11, first signs of adult thinking two dimensional conservation understood Can think logically, but only with practical aids Stop-by-step, guidance Formal Operations, 11 & up, many do not fully attain Logic / abstract reasoning

12 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Pre-conventional - through the age of nine Motivated by pleasure / pain 1. obedience and punishment driven 2. self-interest driven (what’s in it for me?) Conventional - ends around 16 Acceptance of rules and standards of one’s group 3. win approval - interpersonal conformity 4. authority and social order obedience driven Post-conventional Ethical Principals 5. Social contract & Prior rights (mutual respect) 6. Universal ethics - equality and worth of all human beings

13 Adolescence

14 Physical changes growth spurts; growing pains sexual development
primary and secondary changes Early v. late maturation and self-esteem

15 Social Development Peer relationships peer pressure
parents & independence peers &affiliation peer pressure positive or negative influences role of parenting? Popularity? dating /romantic relationships what role? What limits?

16 Identity formation Termed by Erik Erikson
life is a series of “tests” and the main “test” for teens is to establish identity achieved through choosing and developing commitments if not successful, no real sense of self…confusion should result in identity crisis - examine values

17 Analogy of the Jacket by Basia
Parents DNA weaves the fabric Early years cut the cloth Elementary school shape the jacket Middle school – experiment High school – tailor to fit Future - - constantly hem, and patch, and fix but comfortable.

18 Marcia & Identity status
Identity moratorium delay decision making, but still considering options Identity foreclosure ID commitment based on the opinions of others Identity diffusion no clear idea of self; no attempt or unwilling Overwhelmed - - so will not think about it. Identity achievement after exploring options, identification self arrived

19 Challenges of Adolescence
Working - can aid in ID development However: non-transferable skills results in negative work attitude spending patterns self centered effect on grades Dating – identifying likes / dislikes in future partner Too much, too soon? Lose identity?

20 Challenges continued Eating disorders Substance abuse….
Anorexia Nervosa over 90% female, why? avoid adult responsibility or assert control? Bulimia Substance abuse….

21 Now back to theory…… We started with childhood development, and now finished adolescent development. Next we move to adulthood and aging. BUT, before we do, let’s revisit Erik Erikson. His 8 stage theory blends all three sections.

22 Erik Erikson -Psychosocial Development
Trust v. mistrust - world perception Autonomy v. shame and doubt -desire to make choices Initiative v. guilt - becoming “active” Industry v inferiority - productivity & worth Identity v role confusion - career objectives Intimacy v. Isolation - commitment Generativity v Stagnation - needing to be needed Integrity v Despair - was life well lived?

23 ADULTHOOD AND AGING

24 Young Adulthood 20-40 Reassessment settling down
*managing home/bills/career Marriage/ intimate relationships *Gardener vs. fantasy *Children? *how you view money divorce children of divorce

25 Middle Adulthood 40-65 Generativity - self value
transition - re-evaluate middlescence - “crisis” Empty nest syndrome menopause

26 Late adulthood Physical changes Cognitive changes Social changes
Programmed theory vs. Cellular Damage Cognitive changes Senile Dementia Alzheimer's Social changes retirement and grand-parenting living arrangements Successful aging?

27 Death and Dying Dying with Dignity
5 Stages Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Giraffe Dying with Dignity Hospice? Euthenasia? Living will? Funeral plans Bereavement


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