Presentation on theme: "Bioethanol. BIOLOGY Taiyo Hamada What is Ethanol ? Ethanol - also known as ethyl alcohol Its the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors;"— Presentation transcript:
What is Ethanol ? Ethanol - also known as ethyl alcohol Its the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors; used pure or denatured as a solvent
Ethanol from corn It is made by yeast from sugars. Fuel ethanol is highly concentrated to remove the water and blended with other compounds. It is done from the process called fermentation, yeast produces CO2 after eating sugars and produce ethanol as a waste.
Ethanol pollution Ethanol is releasing lots of carbon monoxide and also Volatile organic compounds (VOC) is being released by the ethanol plants, this is dangerous and pollutes the water supplies.
Ethanol pollution 2 The FUMES are produced when fermented corn is dried and selling for sale as a food for animal. Thermal oxidizers can be attached to the plants to burn off the dangerous gases. fume = a gas or vapor that smells strongly or is dangerous to inhale.
Property of Ethanol Molecular formula: C 2 H 5 0H Colorless, inflammable liquid Burns with smokeless blue flame Hydroxyl group Hydrogen Bonding Ethylene Hydration and Fermentation Flash point: 13°C Density: 0.789 g/cm 3
Property of Gasoline Molecular formula: C 8 H 18 Yellow color, volatile and inflammable liquid Vaporizes at the low temperature Burns with black smoke and red flame Oil refineries (distillation) Flash point: 43°C Density: 0.720 g/cm 3
Combustion of Ethanol C 2 H 5 0H (l) + 3O 2(g) 2CO 2(g) + 3H 2 0 (l) 50 L of Ethanol 50000cm 3 50000 × 0.789 = 39450g Number of Ethanol moles: 39450÷46.08 856.120 moles Mole ratio of Ethanol and CO 2 gas – 1:2 Number of CO 2 moles: 1712.240 moles Amount of CO 2 gas produced 1712.240 mol × 44.01g = 75355.6824g 75.356 kg
Combustion of Gasoline C 8 H 18(l) + 12.5 O 2(g) = 8CO 2(g) + 9H 2 O (l) 50L of Gasoline 50000cm 3 50000 × 0.720 = 36000g Number of Gasoline moles: 36000÷114.26 315.071 moles Mole ratio of Gasoline and CO 2 gas – 1:8 Number of CO 2 moles: 2520.568 moles Amount of CO 2 gas produced 2520.568mol × 44.01g = 110930.198g 110.930 kg 35.574 kg MORE!!
Efficiency of Energy 2.6 gallons of corn 1 gallon of ethanol 131,000 BTU = corn production, conversion to 1 gallon pure ethanol. 3 sets of distillation processes to separate 8% ethanol from 92% water. More treatment+energy to produce ethanol (99.8% pure) 77,000 BTU = energy 1 gallon ethanol provides 131,000 - 77,000 = 54,000 BTU net energy loss It takes more energy to produce the ethanol than the ethanol actually provides! EXTREMELY inefficient!
Ethanol Fermentation and Purification Experiment Aim: To ferment and purify home-made ethanol to make it as pure as possible, in order to understand the energy required to produce ethanol
Fermentation Ingredients: Corn Starch (90.7g), Sugar (90.7g), Water (757ml), Yeast (2g) Process: Combine and mix measured ingredients Pour into sealed container (I used pet bottle) Place in warm environment(near 30°C) for 50 hours Approximately 940.4 mL total!
Purification Procedure: Place filter paper in funnel Place funnel over conical flask Filter ethanol through the funnel, and observe the purified product in the flask. Double-distill the solution using powdered active charcoal Filter once more in a separate set of flasks and funnels Remove sugar from ethanol solution using condenser Part 2: Condenser Keep cool water running through the condenser through the two openings Set a tube with a cork on one end on the end of the condenser Place a sample of the double-purified ethanol on top of the hot plate in a beaker, and put the corked end of the tube in the beaker Collect the ethanol that has undergone the entire procedure at the opposite end of the condenser.
Results Final mass: 26/50 mL Ratio: x/940.4mL X=489.008 mL This means that 48% of the entire process became waste!
Comparison: Water to Ethanol Density Gradient Y=-0.00241x+1.01
Experiment Results TrialMass of EthanolDensity 19.990.999 29.820.982 39.790.979 49.740.974 59.260.926 Average Density of our purified ethanol = 0.9712 Density = Mass/Volume Volume is a constant (10cm cubed) Y=-0.00241x+1.01 0.9712=-0.00241x+1.01 X=16.10% All of this effort only led to 16.1% pure ethanol!