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Your strategic 2.4 GHz antenna partner !

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Presentation on theme: "Your strategic 2.4 GHz antenna partner !"— Presentation transcript:

1 Your strategic 2.4 GHz antenna partner !
Welcome to gigaAnt! Your strategic 2.4 GHz antenna partner !

2 Time Table 1:30 – 2:00 Greeting 2:00 – 3:50 Technical Seminar Part I
3:50 – 4:10 Coffee Break 4:10 – 6:00 Technical Seminar Part II

3 This one day course contains
Antenna definition Antenna parameters Different antenna types gigaAnt standard antennas PCB issues Other factors that influence the antenna Matching and tuning Testing and verification Range

4 Antenna Definition Antenna interaction
A device for transmitting and receiving electromagnetic radiation Making a guided electromagnetic wave travel in free space “A means for radiating or receiving radio waves”, IEEE Std Antenna interaction As a result, the antenna and its surrounding needs to be regarded as a unit since they interact strongly

5 Electromagnetic radiation
c =  f f = 2.45GHz   = 12 cm X-Ray, Light, Radio, Heat - It is all the same: Photons!

6 Influencing antenna size
Material choice  = permitivity  FR4  in case /2 antenna, half the length Matching Adding capacitance or inductance by means of electronic components. Geometry antenna type shape (helix, spiral, meander etc.) utilise part of the application.

7 Frequency bands for Mobile phones
MHz NMT and Countries EAMPS USA GSM Europe EGSM Europe NTT Japan DCS Europe PCS USA UMTS ISM Worldwide Visible light THz ISM = Instrumentation, Scientific, Medical Bluetooth WLAN (IEEE ) HomeRF

8 Frequency bands for data communication
WLAN MHz On the way out GHz Available GHz Available soon GHz Will perhaps be available BT GPS 1575,42 MHz Available

9 Antenna parameters Lobes Gain Polarisation Efficiency Frequency Band
Knowledge about the antenna parameters is needed in order for us to understand our customers and vice versa. Lobes Gain Polarisation Efficiency Frequency Band Radiation pattern

10 Radiation pattern 3D Radiation pattern with lobes
Linear plot of power pattern

11 Radiation intensity Radiation intensity in a given direction, , is defined as the power radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle Radiation intensity for an isotropic source: where is the total power radiated by the source

12 Directivity Directivity is a measure of how an antenna concentrates the radiated power in a particular direction. Directivity is the ratio of the intensity, in a given direction, to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if all the power radiated by the antenna were radiated isotropically: a unitless figure

13 Gain Gain is a measure of how an antenna concentrates the radiated power in a particular direction. Gain is the ratio of the intensity, in a given direction, to the radiation intensity that would be obtained if all the power was accepted by the antenna and was radiated isotropically: a unitless figure dBi

14 Gain/Directivity Isotropic Omnidirectional Lobes Dipole = Donut
Normally measured in dB Relative unit dBi: relative ideal isotropic Isotropic radiator has 0dBi gain dBd: relative ideal dipole (1 dBd  dBi) If a gain value is given without any direction, it is the maximum gain More power in one direction at the expense of other directions

15 Gain: good/bad Stationary or mobile application
Important to reach out in a certain direction Wall or corner position Less important inside a small room due to reflections Regulation limits ETSI EN Max 100mW eirp FCC peak power reduction when antenna gain over 6dBi

16 Decibel Used to compare two figures with each other
Describes better measurable steps than fractions Always unitless dB dBi (isotropic) dBd (dipole) dBm (miliwatt) dBw (Watt)

17 Antenna efficiency (total)
Good figure of merit, especially for small antennas Ratio of the power sent to the antenna to the power radiated by the antenna Unitless Ideal 1 Often given in percent Radiated efficiency is given as the ratio of the power accepted by the antenna to the power radiated by the antenna, and is thus higher than totoal efficiency if there is losses in strip line, components etc. The average gain in all directions is the same as the efficiency.

18 Polarization Circular Linear Small antennas have no clear polarization
Reflection affects polarization Maximum power transfer requires polarization match between antennas in free space. In reality, polarization is not a problem.

19

20 EVOLUTION 1. Monopole L- antenna F- antenna PIFA
(Wire inverted F-antenna) PIFA (Planar inverted F-antenna) Move feeding point to 50 Ohm to create high inductance. High surface current = high power loss /4 - Pin Good, but very tall, 37 Ohm /4 - Pin Better, medium tall, but capacitivity to earth plane Create larger area to minimise surface resistance and power losses

21 EVOLUTION 2. /2 - PATCH /4 - PATCH = PIFA
That point is connected to earth and the antenna size is reduced by half. Large In the middle of the antenna the Voltage = O v.

22 Microstrip Printed on PCB Low cost Although thin, quite large
Depends on variation in board material Free space-dependent Narrow bandwidth

23 Your strategic partner ! Complete antenna solutions
Application know-how & tuning Proven concepts Antenna delivery Verification of antenna performance

24 Your Benefit Shorter time to market Project support from A to Z High performance solutions

25 2.4 GHz antenna concepts for a wide range of applications
Snap-in ICM Head sets Laptop SWIVEL Mobile phones Instruments SMD Digital pens Dongles PDA’s PCMCIA-cards

26 External Concepts Swivel
TITANIS Gain 1.6 dBi Efficiency: 75% VSWR <1.5:1 Length : 50 mm Basic data External 1/2 wave dipole Independent of ground plane with internal matching net Typical Applications Development kits, Prototypes, Printers , Instruments Customer benefits - Easy implementation - no matching & tuning - Perfect for feasibility studies - High performance - reliable data transfer - Designed for flexible mounting - rotating antenna blade VIRAGO Gain 1.6 dB Efficiency: 75% VSWR <1.5:1 Length : 50 mm

27 Internal concepts Snap-in
FLAVUS Gain 1.4 dBi VSWR <1.4:1 Efficiency: 62 % Dim (mm) : 8x27x3 mm General Internal 1/2 wave dipole independent of ground plane with external matching Applications Mobile & desktop computers, Measuring instruments audio equipment, Automotive systems, Note books Customer Benefits - Easy & fast implementation - 1 working week - High performance - reliable data transfer - No soldering - Designed for pick & place - Proven concept CRISPUS Gain 1.6 dBi VSWR <1.5:1 Efficiency: 73% Dim (mm) : 20x30x4

28 ICM concept General Internal Case Mounted antenna 1/2 wave dipole
ICM - Single band General Internal Case Mounted antenna 1/2 wave dipole independent of ground plane with external matching, customized design of contact points and antenna. Applications PDA’s, handheld devices, instruments, etc Customer benefit - High performance where space is restricted - Flexible mounting - type of fastening - Fast implementation compared to ceramic - Requires little space - only contact pad - Multi purpose antennas GHz & GSM ICM - Multi Band ICM - Dual band

29 SMD concept General Internal 1/4 wave PIFA dependent of ground plane.
Applications Mobile & desktop computers, Measuring instruments audio equipment, Automotive systems, Note books Customer benefits - Easy and fast implementation - 1 week - Designed for SMD soldering - High performance - reliable data transfer - Small in size - Less sensitive than ceramic MICA Gain 3-5 dBi VSWR <2.5 Efficiency: 60% Dim (mm) : 19x3.2x3.2

30 CUSTOMER Ramp-up gigaAnt Antenna delivery STARTUP PROJECT PRODUCTION
selection Footprints Appli.notes samples Review of design & PCB Design of prototype Prototype ready Ramp-up STARTUP PROJECT PRODUCTION gigaAnt Antenna selection guidance Review of PCB design Tuning & Matching Verification of prototype Final report Antenna delivery

31 ICM Antenna delivery SMD Antenna delivery Snap-In Antenna delivery
specification Design of mechanical Interface Transmission Line dimensioning Tuning in prototype Verification of prototype Ramp-up production Antenna delivery SMD Review of PCB design Transmission Line dimensioning Tuning in prototype Verification of prototype Custom. Tooling Antenna delivery Snap-In Review of PCB design Transmission Line dimensioning Matching in prototype Verification of prototype Antenna delivery Swivel Virago Review of PCB design Transmission Line dimensioning Antenna delivery Swivel Titanis Antenna delivery

32 Implementation issues
Internal / External Standard or custom made Time schedule, estimated production volume, Available volume in device In-House or RF-Partner with know-how Required performance Space limitations Operating environment Continuous dialog Understanding for RF-problems Early access to chassis Early access to populated PCB

33 Antenna implementation: Standard concept
Advantages Well known electrical performance Environmentally / mechanically tested Specifications and application note available Tools already manufactured Fast implementation Lower price Possible solution for low volume applications Disadvantages Hard to fulfill special requirements Size/Shape might not fit available volume optimal (form factor)

34 Antenna implementation: Standard concept
Common steps (RF point of view) Advice customer in antenna choices and placement Performance, Available volume, Hands… Review PCB-drawing for RF-mistakes Feeding (length, path, dimensions), Matching location, Ground plane, Through plating, Calculations… Build mock-up Antenna performance, Matching, Covers, Surrounding components, Hidden things… Final product Matching, Tuning, Measurements Report Antenna performance, Matching Follow up

35 Antenna implementation: New concept
Advantages Meet special requirements Use all available volume in order to increase antenna performance Chance to start a new standard concept Disadvantages Uncertain antenna performance No documentation available Always a risk in new tools Uses lot of resources and time in organization Might only fit one application Costly in small volumes

36 Antenna implementation: New concept
Common steps (RF point of view) Advice customer in antenna choices Build mock-up, often several in a developing process Check PCB for RF-mistakes Find subcontractor for tools, material, manufacturing Test products from subcontractors Order tools (prototype tool, soft tool, hard tool) Environmental test on parts from tools Changing tools After receiving PCB, matching and measurement Changes in PCB and covers are common Several reports during the process Follow up

37 Ceramic Antennas Pros Small size Compact surface mount units Cons
Large ground plane dependence -> high of non-working antenna Narrow bandwidth Low efficiency Hand sensitive

38 Mechanical design Parameters that affect performance
Covers: Material, Shape, Colors, Metalisation Free space / Office environment Humans Stationary/mobile application Reflections from walls etc Environmental factors

39 Electrical design Parameters that affect performance Ground plane
Position Surrounding components Transmission line dimensions Feeding (balanced/unbalanced) Matching Through platings

40 Strips Even if calculated to be 50 ohm, if too thin it introduces large losses due to distributed parasitic coupling to ground plane. Long strips should be avoided because of the high losses at 2.4 GHz in general FR-4. Sharp bend should be avoided because of the parasitic effects. Better to split up into two bends or a large radius. Some effects could be avoided if corner is chamfered.

41 Different type of strip lines
Co-planar waveguide Microstrip Grounded co-planar waveguide Stripline

42 Antenna impact on the PCB
Antenna require certan ground plane Or lack of ground plane Be aware of antenna user interaction RF close to radio chip because of feeding Area for matcing components Surrounding components (battery, contacts, cables, loudspeaker) Outside shielded areas

43 Transmitter characteristics

44 Receiver characteristics
0dBm TX Power -40 dBm RX 1m -70 dBm RX 10m -90 dBm noise floor Specification requires -70dBm Some radio chips down to -90dBm The actual sensitivity level is defined as the input level for which a raw bit error rate (BER) of 0.1% is met. The requirement for a Bluetooth receiver is an actual sensitivity level of –70 dBm or better. The receiver must achieve the –70 dBm sensitivity level with any Bluetooth transmitter compliant to the transmitter specification The 10 meter range is not included in Bluetooth specification.

45 Antenna range Friis transmission equation relates operating range, power and gain Hard partition office decreases range  increases n Two antennas with 2 dBi gain Radio fulfilling -70 dBm.

46 Antenna measurements

47 Network Analyser Measuring S-parameters in frequency domain VSWR, Return Loss, Smith Chart Phase Evaluate matching Evaluate undesired losses Coverage measurements                           

48 VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio)
Determination of matching between the antenna and the transceiver in the prototype Essential to minimising power losses

49 VSWR Ideal 1:1 Typical 2:1 Minimized by matching network Power sent to the antenna should be accepted and not reflected.

50 Return Loss Used to describe antenna Related to VSWR
Narrow / Spread band S11-parameter The analyzer sweeps frequencies and register reflection from antenna

51 Smith Chart is used for matchinng and adjusting antennas
Based on the result of Smith Chart measurements gigaAnt can carry out network matching Antenna Impedance Strip line impedance Smith Chart is used for matchinng and adjusting antennas

52 Transmission measurement
Losses in feeding Losses in connections Isolation between antennas S12-parameter

53 Antenna measurements

54 3D radiation pattern Radiation pattern of the antenna when mounted in the actual device Needed to ensure the required functionality. It is easily seen if an antenna really is sufficiently omnidirectional or if a directional antenna has the expected radiation pattern.

55 Field regions of antenna

56 3D radiation pattern measurement
Anechoic chamber with shielding and absorbers Advanced controlling of probe position Two probes collecting both polarisations Network analyzer to collect data Nearfileld to farfield transformation Measure one frequency at the time DUT is rotating phi while probes are stepping theta.

57 Radiation Pattern Pattern from Bluetooth swivel under development measured in Moteco´s anechoic chamber. A 3D scan reveals things a 2D scan never could.

58 Antenna measurements

59 SAR - (Specific Absorption Rate)
Governmental/ International agreement on how much a transmitting unit is allowed to heat tissue We verify compliance with national/international regulations  = Tissue conductivity (S/m) E = Electric field strength in tissue (V/m)  = Tissue dencity (kg/m3)

60 SAR Not necessary for the 10 meter (1dBm) Bluetooth standard
Necessary for the 100 (20dBm) meter Bluetooth standard Europe 2.0 mW/g over 10g cube tissue USA 1.6 mW/g over 1 g cube tissue SAR measurements are difficult Requires expensive and advanced equipment

61 Field measurement Examination of the electrical and magnetic fields on the surface of the product (prototype) and antenna Important measurements the result is used during the development process to verify functionality and to ensure SAR compliance

62 Summary Antenna Development
Simulation is a useful tool, but not perfect The PCB is very essential to make a good antenna. Prototypes are an essential part of the development Continuous measurement and verification after changes in the surroundings Experience and know-how are important for a good result Iteration between design and measurement is needed

63 You need the right antenna to communicate !
What ?


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