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Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–1 Human Resources (HR) Management The management function devoted to: Recruiting –Getting the right people to apply Selecting –Having proper, legal tests to select the right people Training/Development –Making sure the entire workforce is proficient Retaining –Career development, Satisfaction, Work environment Evaluating –Ensuring that performance is monitored and attrition is functional Strategic Human Resource Management The linking of the human resource function with the company’s strategies to accomplish that strategy. Paramount in today’s environment –The employee is the majority of any SCA
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–2 The Basic HR Process FIGURE 9–1
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–3 Job Descriptions And Recruiting Employees Staffing Filling a firm’s open positions (with the right people) Through the use of: –Job Analysis –Job Descriptions –Management Input Six Steps Job analysis Personnel planning Recruiting Interviewing Testing and selection Training and development.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–4 Job Analysis The procedure used to determine (P J Fit) The duties and responsibilities of particular jobs The people (in terms of skills and experience) who should be hired for them. The working environment Job Specification The human qualifications in terms of: Traits, skills, and experiences required to accomplish a job. Job Description A document that identifies a particular job Providing (at a minimum) –A brief job summary –A list of specific responsibilities and duties of the job.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–5 Steps in the Recruitment and Selection (staffing) Process FIGURE 9–2
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–6 FIGURE 9–4 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions Source: (accessed in July 28,2001) A form used by managers to determine the duties and functions of a job through a series of questions that employees answer. * Just one of many assessment tools used to get at job information
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–7 Checklist 9.1 Job Analysis Questions What is the job being performed? Not the person doing the job… What are the major duties of your position? What exactly do you do? In the position, not based on the individual… What are the education, experience, skill, and certification and licensing requirements? For the position, not the person… In what activities do you participate now? Day to day operations What are the job’s responsibilities and duties?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–8 Checklist 9.1 (cont’d) Job Analysis Questions What are the environmental and working conditions involved? Important because they effect the compensation of the job What are the job’s physical/emotional/mental demands? Again, an issue of work environment… What are the health and safety conditions? Does the job expose you to any hazards or unusual working conditions? What are the basic accountabilities or performance standards that typify your work?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–9 Personnel Planning The process of determining the organization’s future personnel needs, as well as the methods to be used to fill those needs. Succession planning Development Ladders Promotional Ladders –Both internal and external to the organization Personnel charts / Position Replacement Card A card prepared for each position in a company to show possible replacement candidates and their qualifications. Internal approaches to recruitment
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–10 Employee Recruiting Recruiting Attracting a pool of viable job applicants. A immensely understated definition What does it take to recruit properly? Where to recruit? What media to use… What labor pools to address Screening potential bad hires out Information dissemination –RJP Retaining those employees
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–11 Sources of Recruits Current employees What are the pros / cons? What tools do you use? Advertising Source is key…Why? The Internet Again Pros and Cons Employment agencies Public Private Contingent workers 60% of temp work is non- clerical How does this fit? College recruiting Niche applicant pool Specific traits Executive recruiters Reserved for high level positions Employee referrals One of the best sources for new hires (Why?) Walk-ins People are actively seeking… Recruiting for a diverse workforce 20% of the workforce Keep EEOC happy
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–12 FIGURE A9–1 Job Posting Form Source: Source: Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Recruiting and Selection Procedures (Washington, DC, 1988), p.35. A job posting publicizes an open job to employees (often by literally posting it on bulletin boards and intranets) and listing its attributes, like qualifications, supervisor, working schedule, and pay rate.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–13 Employment Applications What is there primary purpose? To collect job relevant information Skills, Prerequisites, Experience, Past history To collect demographic information Find out what kind of people you are attracting? From where? As a Screening tool To ensure that applicants are informed about basic requirements of the job –So, that they may self-select out in necessary. As a discriminating tool To the extent that it reflects the identity and base image of the firm
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–14 FIGURE 0–7 Employment Application A form that requests information such as education, work history, and hobbies from a job candidate as a means of quickly collecting verifiable historical data. Again, So much more than what is stated in the book
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–15 Testing for Employee Selection First of all… What is a Selection Test? Uses of Tests Job Relatedness Reliability (repeatability of test results) Validity (measures what it purports to measure) Types of Tests Intelligence (g) the highest predictor of performance (g) broken down –Distributive –Procedural –Interpersonal Mechanical comprehension More along the lines of specific job knowledge Technical knowledge
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–16 Testing for Employee Selection (Cont.) Personality and interests Why would we measure this? –Because of the correlations with job performance –Especially across certain job types Ability/achievement (current capabilities/knowledge) Again Breaking down ability (g) into –Technical –Contextual Aptitude (performance potential) One’s ability to excel and new skill sets –Ability to learn Management assessment center Multiple, compounded work sample testing
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–17 Conducting Effective Interviews Plan the interview Make sure that you address what was missed in other assessment tools Structure the interview Ensure that the procedure is the same for every applicant Establish rapport Remember, you are portraying the image of the organization Ask effective questions Yes/no answers may not suffice; open/closed questions Delay your decision Don’t allow impulse and snap judgments to create errors Close the interview Ensure that you have answered all the applicant’s question As well as, formally ended the assessment (test) part
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–18 Structured Interviews Panel Interviews Why use panels? Reduce biases and errors Get multiple point of view Multiple interviewers Test-retest logic (consistency) Situational Interviews Make sure the is job relatedness and validity Procedure oriented Ordering of questions Reaction to responses
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–19 Guidelines for Interviewees Prepare Know the employer Make a good first impression Even trained interviewers are influenced by first impressions Uncover the interviewer’s needs Engage the interviewer / Gauge what they want Think before answering Pause, Think, Speak. (Actually Listen) Watch your nonverbal behavior Remember, only a fraction of our communication is verbal. Thank about all the other messages your sending
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–20 Other Selection Techniques Computerized Testing Increasingly popular Why? Background Investigations and Reference Checks Nothing speaks to future behavior like past behavior Honesty Testing Overt and hidden Possibility of faking Health Exams Overall Health Able to perform job functions
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–21 Orienting Employees Orientation The process of providing new employees with basic information about the employer: Company policies Working hours Parking arrangements Not even close, What else? Socialization of new hires Screening tool New employee channel Homogenizing the workforce
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–22 Training Employees Training Program The process of providing new employees with information they need to do their jobs satisfactorily. Reactive Training Program Steps Needs analysis Instructional design Validation Implementation Evaluation and follow-up
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–23 Checklist 9.4 How to Conduct an On-the-Job (OJT) Training Program Prepare the learner. Create interest Gauge the learners position/efficacy Present the operations. Once their motivated Present the material Do a tryout. To ensure “effectiveness” Follow-up. To ensure “transfer”
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–24 Employee Appraisal Performance Appraisal A manager’s objective evaluation of the job Feedback on an employee’s work performance. Cardinal rule –Never mix administrative and developmental feedback Typical Performance Appraisal Method A graphic rating scale that lists several job characteristics –Made easier through the use of job description Provides a rating scale From outstanding to unsatisfactory along with short definitions of each rating.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–25 Employee Appraisal Methods Critical Incidents Method Compiling brief examples of good/bad performance, and using them to support appraisal and development needs. Forced Distribution Method Placing predetermined percentages of ratees into performance categories. 360-degree Feedback Collecting performance information on an employee from subordinates, supervisors, peers, and internal and external customers.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–26 FIGURE 9–13 Performance Appraisal Form Source: Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, 9th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000), p.90.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–27 Checklist 9.5 How to Conduct the Appraisal Interview Prepare for the interview. Be direct and specific. Don’t get personal. Encourage the person to talk. Don’t tiptoe around.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–28 Forms of Employee Compensation Fixed Salary Compensation based on an agreed rate for a period of time. Hourly Wage Compensation based on a set hourly pay rate for work performed. Financial Incentive Any financial reward that is contingent on a worker’s performance, such as commissions or piecework.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–29 Employee Benefits Unemployment Insurance Legally mandated insurance that is paid by state agencies to workers who are terminated through no fault of their own; the funds come from a tax on the employer’s payroll. Workers’ Compensation A legally mandated benefit that pays income and medical benefits to work-related accident victims or their dependents, regardless of fault.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–30 Discipline and Grievances (cont’d) Discipline without Punishment A multistage disciplinary technique that uses oral reminders of the violated rule; then written reminders; followed by a paid one-day leave; and finally, if the behavior is not corrected, dismissal. Grievance A complaint that an employee lodges against an employer, usually one regarding wages, hours, or some condition of employment, such as unfair supervisory behavior.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–31 Checklist 9.6 Guidelines for Disciplining an Employee Make sure the evidence supports the charge. Protect the employee’s due process rights. Warn the employee of the disciplinary consequences. The rule allegedly violated should be “reasonably related” to the efficient and safe operation of the work environment. Fairly and adequately investigate the matter. Be sure there is substantial evidence of misconduct.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–32 Checklist 9.6 (cont’d) Guidelines for Disciplining an Employee Apply rules, orders, or penalties even-handedly. Make sure the penalty is reasonably related to the misconduct and to the employee’s past work history. Maintain the employee’s right to counsel. Don’t rob your subordinate of his or her dignity. Remember that the burden of proof is on you. Get the facts. Don’t base your decision on hearsay or “general impression.” Don’t act while angry.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–33 Affirmative Action A legislated requirement that employers make an extra effort to hire and promote those in a protected (women or minority) group.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.9–34 Labor–Management Relations Norris–LaGuardia Act Guarantees each employee the right to bargain with employers for union benefits. Wagner Act Outlaws unfair labor practices such as employers interfering with, restraining, or coercing employees who are exercising their legally sanctioned rights of organizing themselves into a union. The Taft–Hartley Act Prohibits unfair labor practices by unions against employers (like refusing to bargain with the employer). The Landrum-Griffin Act Protects union members from unfair practices perpetrated against them by their unions.
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