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Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–1 Managing Individual Behavior Motivation The intensity of a person’s desire to engage in an activity. Based on a whole paradigm of research and theory 1.Needs-based Approaches 2.Process-Based Approaches 3.Learning/Reinforcement-Based Approaches There are a multitude of theories aimed at understanding individual motivation The Law of Individual Differences A psychological term representing the fact that people differ in their: Personalities Abilities Self-concept Values, and needs. Premise: What motivates one may not motivate another
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–2 Personality The characteristic and distinctive traits of an individual Posited to be stable and unchanging Influential in determining behavior Not affected by the environment Personality traits interact to help or hinder the adjustment of the person to other people and situations. It is important to understand that the interaction of individual traits with other aspects of the environment affect personal motivation
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–3 Some Individual Determinants of Behavior FIGURE 11–1 Early Motivational Theories Based on Needs Evolution of theories to include self-regulation and higher-order needs
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–4 Personality Types Authoritarian Personality A personality type characterized by: Rigidity Intolerance of ambiguity Tendency to stereotype others as being good or bad Conformity to the requirements of authority. Machiavellian Personality A personality type oriented toward: Manipulation and control With a low sensitivity to the needs of others Sixteenth-century political advisor Niccolò Machiavelli.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–5 Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors FIGURE 11–2 Source: Adapted from Gregory Northcraft and Margaret Neale, Organizational Behavior (Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press, 1994), p. 87.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–6 Measuring Personality Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A tool for measuring personality in the work setting. Many other assessment do exist –Example NEO-IPIP –Big-Five Personality Traits MBTI classifications: Extraverted or introverted (E or I) Sensing or intuitive (S or N) Thinking or feeling (T or F) Perceiving or judging (P or J). The MBTI questionnaire classifies people into 16 different personality types (a 4 X 4 matrix)
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–7 Measuring Personality (cont’d) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (cont’d) Different personality types (the 4X4 matrix) are classified into one of four cognitive (thinking or problem-solving) styles: Sensation–thinking (ST) –Thorough, Logical, Practical CPA’s Intuition–thinking (NT) –Creative, Independent, Critical Professors and Lawyers Sensation–feeling (SF) –Conscientious and Responsible Social workers Intuition–feeling (NF) –People-Oriented, Sociable, and Charismatic HR Managers, and Politicians
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–8 Abilities and Behavior Performance = Ability x Motivation We’ve introduced half the equation (Motivation) Now we need to look at ability Types of abilities Mental, cognitive, or thinking abilities (g) Overall I.Q –Life is easier when you have this Specific / Technical Abilities Mechanical ability Psychomotor abilities Visual skills Specific learned abilities (training, experience, or education)
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–9 Self-Concept and Behavior Self-Concept The perceptions people have of themselves and their relationships to people and other aspects of life. Let me try another word Core Self Evaluation –What we are conceptualizing is an overall view of one-self –Our overall belief in our ability to accomplish goals –Based, in part, on your perception of your “social context” Self-Efficacy A perception that influences the belief that one can accomplish what one sets out to do. Two types –Generalized Self-Efficacy –State Self-Efficacy This perception is more directly related to specific tasks
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–10 Perception and Behavior Perceptions Perception is Reality How our personalities and experiences cause us to interpret stimuli. –Is the world static and concrete –The same for everyone No way… Perceptions are influenced by: Personality and needs (self-efficacy) Values (strong personal code of ethics) Stress (health and environment) Position in society or an organization Stereotyping Associating certain characteristics with certain socioeconomic classes but not with others.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–11 Attitudes and Behavior Attitude A predisposition to respond to objects, people, or events in either a positive or negative way. Based on what? How do we form attitudes? What is the relationship with behavior? Attitudes are important because they can influence how people behave on the job. What came first the behavior/action or attitude? How do we change attitudes? Attitude can have a major affect on performance I’ve always said it’s more attitude than ability
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–12 Attitudes and Behavior (cont’d) Job Satisfaction It is an attitude… The Job Descriptive Index measures five aspects of job satisfaction: 1.Pay. How much pay is received, and is it perceived as equitable? 2.Job. Are tasks interesting? Are opportunities provided for learning and for accepting responsibility? 3.Promotional opportunities. Are promotions and opportunities to advance available and fair? 4.Supervisor. Does the supervisor demonstrate interest in and concern about employees? 5.Co-workers. Are coworkers friendly, competent, and supportive?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–13 Need-based Approaches To Motivation Assumption Needs control our behavior and motivation, and our not regulated or controlled by higher-order thinking Motive Something that incites a person to action or that sustains and gives direction to action. Again, it is a need and must be satisfied Maslow’s Needs-Hierarchy Theory People have a hierarchy of five increasingly higher-level needs: Physiological Security Social Self-esteem Self-actualization. Prepotency Process Principle People are motivated first to satisfy the lower-order needs and then, in sequence, each of the higher-order needs.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–14 FIGURE 11–5 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs One of the major assumptions of this hierarchy is that lower order needs must be met before higher order needs
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–15 Need-based Approaches To Motivation Existence Relatedness Growth (ERG) Theory Alderfer’s theory of human needs focuses on three needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. –In this theory all need exist simultaneously Existence –Needs are similar to Maslow’s physiological and security needs. Relatedness –Needs are those that require interpersonal interaction to satisfy (prestige and esteem from others). Growth –Needs are similar to Maslow’s needs for self-esteem and self-actualization.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–16 Need-based Approaches To Motivation Herzberg’s Hygiene-Motivator Approach A Two Factor Approach Reduces Maslow’s hierarchy to: Hygienes: (lower-level) –Physiological –Safety –Social Motivators: (higher-level) –Ego –Self-actualization Arrange the job so that it provides intrinsic satisfaction of higher-level needs Since these needs are constantly recurring and relatively insatiable.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–17 FIGURE 11–6 Summary of Herzberg’s Motivator– Hygiene Findings Source: Adapted from Frederick Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees,” Harvard Business Review, January–February 1968.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–18 Need-based Approaches To Motivation Needs for Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Understanding individual differences… The Need for Achievement A predisposition to strive for success and the satisfaction of accomplishing a challenging task or goal. –Meeting standards / Doing better / Accomplishing goals The Need for Power A desire to influence others directly by making suggestions, giving opinions and evaluations, and trying to talk others into things. –Control / Influence / Persuasion The Need for Affiliation The motivation to maintain strong, warm relationships with friends and relatives. –Belonging / Relationships / Agreeable
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–19 Process Approaches To Motivation Adams’s Equity Theory People have a need for, and therefore value and seek, fairness in employer–employee relationships. Distributive Justice If a person perceives an inequity A tension or drive will develop in the person’s mind, and the person will be motivated to reduce or eliminate the tension and the perceived inequity. –Inputs/Outputs (Self) = Inputs/Outputs (Referent other) Employees can do this by reducing what they put into the job, or by boosting the magnitude of the rewards they take out (or both). –It has less to do with reality, and more to do with Perception (Self Referent)
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–20 FIGURE 11–8 How a Perceived Inequity Can Affect Performance There are a host of actions one can take when inequity is perceived
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–21 Process Approaches To Motivation Locke’s Goal Theory of Motivation People regulate their behavior in such a way as achieve their goals. –This is an important distinction from earlier needs-based approaches A person’s goals provide the mechanism through which unsatisfied needs are translated into actions. Goals are a function of thought-out (regulated) motivational needs Unsatisfied needs prompt the person to seek ways to satisfy those needs The person then formulates goals that prompt action. –How do we create motivating goals?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–22 Process Approaches To Motivation Goal Theory of Motivation Findings The goals should be: Specific Challenging Understandable Participative – Leading to higher task performance : Other important aspects: Feedback showing progress towards the goals is provided. Appropriate task strategies are used when tasks are complex. (supportive environment) Individuals have adequate abilities. (P = A x M) There is a commitment to accomplishing the goals.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–23 Process Approaches To Motivation Vroom’s Expectancy Theory People are conscious agents who are continually sizing up situations in terms of their perceived needs And then acting in accordance with these perceptions. Motivation = E x I x V E represents expectancy (probability of success) The belief that increased effort will lead to higher performance –If I study more I will do better on the exam I is instrumentality (correlation) If I do better on the exam it will show in my grade The belief that 1 st order outcomes 2 nd order outcomes V is valence (value of a particular reward) The perceived value one places on the rewards
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–24 Learning/Reinforcement Approaches To Motivation Learning A relatively permanent change in a person that occurs as a result of experience. Is learning always voluntary / volitional? Are we always aware that we are learning? –We don’t have to choose to learn to learn something… Motivation based on learning tends to be instinctive rather than a product of a deliberate thought process. In other words, what we learn is not really are choice Along with instinct, we attribute values and attitudes towards experiences which affect our learning. –What do you think?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–25 Learning / Reinforcement Approaches B. F. Skinner and Operant Behavior Operant behavior Behavior that appears to operate on or have an influence on the subject’s environment. –A learning type that focuses on the actual behavior learned affecting the environment –In other words, you change your behavior in order to change your outcomes Contingent reward A reward that is contingent or dependent on performance of a particular behavior. –Most operant learning occurs because of some reward –Upon continuous deliverance of that reward, subjects will continue to exhibit the behavior –Stimulus Response
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–26 Learning/Reinforcement Approaches Behavior Modification The technique of changing or modifying behavior through the use of contingent rewards or punishments. Based on Skinner’s principles –Behavior is altered as a function of possible rewards or punishment. What about beliefs, attributes, perceptions? Behavior modification has two basic principles: Behavior that leads to a reward tends to be repeated –Whereas behavior that leads to punishment tends not to be repeated. Since behavior is the main outcome we wish to alter, sometimes it is enough. –Dissonance?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–27 Use Pay for Performance Pay for Performance Compensation methods based on merit/performance rather than across-the-board nonoutput-based pay. More instrumental and valent then salaries Providing a clear path Through strong instrumentality and valence Variable Pay Plan A compensation plan that reduces or increases a portion of an employee’s pay, depending on whether the company meets its financial goals. Combined with salary, a percentage of your pay is specifically under your control Gainsharing Plan An incentive plan that engages employees in a common effort to achieve a company’s productivity objectives and in which they share in the gains. An initiative that ties everyone in one department or division together By tying their individual pay to the success of the larger group
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–28 Improving Merit Pay Merit Raise A salary increase—usually permanent—based on individual performance. Most of the time seen as expected. Which means? Applying merit raises more intelligently Clarify performance standards. So that employees can see instrumentality Institute a performance appraisal system That is in-line with the standards, so there is no disconnect Award merit pay based on merit Too often, it is seen as a formality, COL increase Tie award allocations to limited specific timeframes. In line with expectancy If the time horizon is too long, interest is lost
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–29 Use Behavior Management Positive Reinforcement Rewarding desired behavior; or the actual rewards Such as praise or bonuses Given each time the desired behavior occurs. Extinction Withholding positive reinforcement so that the undesired behavior disappears over time. This is not punishment You are simply removing the positive outcome for exhibiting the behavior Negative Reinforcement Reinforcing the desirable behavior by removing something undesirable from the situation. A tricky concept… Can be seen as a type of reward
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–30 Use Behavior Management (cont’d) Punishment Applying penalties for the undesired behavior to reduce the possibility that it will recur. Punishment involves the introduction of a undesired consequence in an effort to deter behavior You will need to be able to distinguish between: Interventions that introduce a reward/punishment Interventions that remove a reward/punishment Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Produces rapid learning of behavior. –However, what is the downside? Variable reinforcement Produces sustained behavior. –What are the advantages here?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–31 Enrich the Jobs Job Enrichment The inclusion of opportunities for achievement and other motivators in a job by making the job itself more challenging. Job Enrichment Techniques Form natural work groups. Combine tasks. Establish client relationships Vertically load the job. Open feedback channels.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.11–32 Enrich the Jobs Job Design The number and nature of specific tasks or activities in a job. Job Enlargement An increase in the number of similar tasks assigned to a job. Job Rotation The systematic movement of a worker from job to job to improve job satisfaction and reduce boredom.
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