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Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–1 Communication Simple Communication The exchange of information and the transmission of meaning. Let’s think about all that goes into this definition Exchange –Between two people, three, or a group? –Is it a one-way exchange? –Does one-way exchange really exist? What is the media? –How does that affect the exchange? Information –What characteristics best suit different types of information? Exchanging information in a way that creates a common basis of understanding and feeling. How do you create a vital “common basis”
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–2 Components of the Communication Process Information Source The message, idea, thought, or fact that is to be communicated Signal The stream of words, images, or gestures used to actually express the message Transmission The act of actually sending, delivering, or transferring the message Channel or Medium. A report, image, speech, or nonverbal behavior Destination or receiver The listener, audience, viewer, or reader Noise Anything that blocks, distorts, or in any way changes the information source as it makes its way to the destination/receiver Why is there such a need to break down “simple” communication?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–3 The Communication Process FIGURE 12–1 Source: © Gary Dessler, Ph.D.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–4 Barriers to Effective Communication Ambiguous, Muddled Messages Ambiguity of Meaning Did not understand the subject matter Ambiguity of intent Did not understand what the sender’s intentions Ambiguity of effect The receiver is unsure of the consequences of the message Semantics Words have different meanings to different people Physical Barriers Barriers that physically limit your ability to get the message across Loss of Transmission Degradation of message content We all know what happens to stories when passed from person to person. (Important information is often lost)
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–5 Barriers to Effective Communication Failing to Communicate This occurs often when speaking to large groups of people Active Listening Ensuring that what you said is what was actually heard and understood Competition Barriers Often times people are involved in multiple forms of information retrieval This means that a sender must do everything in their power to monopolize the airways. –In order to get the understanding you desire Cultural, Linguistic, and Diversity Barriers Along with semantics Language is metaphor, and therefore very value laden Not Listening This entire class. Your hoping to learn through osmosis
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–6 Nonverbal Communication The non-spoken aspects of communication A person’s manner of speaking, facial expressions, or body posture, that express meaning to others. In my opinion the most important aspect of communication If communication is metaphorical and value-laden Those issues are best communicated in non-verbals Nonverbal communication can complicate the task of communicating internationally. Socially bound and independent… In many societies –The context (or setting) in which a message is delivered, with its nonverbal cues, has far more meaning than the words of the message itself.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–7 Psychological Barriers Keeping in mind the dyadic (subjective) nature of a communication exchange Perception Selectivity/exposure Filtering out of unpleasant things and focusing on or recalling things not heard. –We perceive all day long Sensemaking Retention Filtering of things that feel good, and the tendency to forget those things that are painful. Experiential Barriers The difficulty in understanding things not personally experienced. The absence of the “common frame of reference” –How do we address this…
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–8 Psychological Barriers (cont’d) Emotions Emotions influence both what is said and what is heard. Not only emotions regarding the message and messenger. Also, overall emotions that a person has throughout any given day –The content is a small part of the process Defensiveness Adjustments people make to avoid acknowledging personal inadequacies that might reduce their self- esteem. We construct our own reality to make us feel better…
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–9 Active Listening Listen for total meaning. Try your best to understand the entire, complete message being sent What else is there besides content Reflect feelings. Affirm the listener by letting them know there message is being heard. Note all cues. Expressions, gestures, self-concept Give the person your full attention. Filter out all the noise (people sense this) Show that you are listening with an open mind. Withhold judgment, and quick responses Encourage the speaker to give complete information. Paraphrasing, summarizing, ask questions
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–10 How to be More Persuasive Establish your credibility. This is usually achieved through expertise and/or experience Frame for common ground. Incorporate a common understanding Connect emotionally. Persuasion is based on emotion Provide evidence. Legitimize your side Use peer power whenever it’s available. Find legitimacy through the acceptance of others Have the person make the commitment active, public, and voluntary. Public commitments tend to bring about action
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–11 How to Improve Your Negotiating Skills Mistakes to avoid when negotiating: Neglecting the other side’s problems. One of the most common problems –We tend not to subordinate or understand the other side Sometimes, simply acknowledging the other person’s concerns or needs leads to agreement –It is both a tool and a consideration Letting price overwhelm other interests. Searching too hard for common ground. On the flip side, sometimes a common ground can’t be ound Failing to consider BANTRAs The alternative desired may not be tenable However, through the process you realize what alternatives have materialized.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–12 Organizational Communication Communication that occurs among several individuals or groups. Downward communications go from superior to subordinate. –Usually tend to be formal and structured in nature –Don’t really allow for feedback and response Lateral (horizontal) communications move between departments or between people in the same department. –Not as formal, although structured to allow for proper information flow Upward communications move from subordinates to superiors. –Probably the most important, least used communication channel.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–13 Special Barriers to Organizational Communication What we want to say vs. what we actually say is a function of several possible barriers… Interpersonal Barriers Authority Task Political Identity Organizational Culture Organization Structures Free Speech?
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–14 Getting Upward Feedback Request feedback from people whom you trust and who will be honest with you. If the feedback is too general, ask for examples of specific, recent behavior. Don’t be defensive, make excuses, or blame others when you hear criticism. Do not overreact or underreact to feedback. Once the feedback is complete, summarize what the speaker said to make sure that you understand. Explain what you are going to do in response to the feedback, do it, evaluate the consequences on performance, and then let the feedback-giver know of the outcome. Thank the person for his or her concern and advice. FIGURE 12–2 Source: Adapted from Paula J. Caproni, The Practical Coach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001), p. 21.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–15 Fostering Upward Organizational Communication Social gatherings Union publications Regular meetings Performance appraisal meetings Grievances Attitude surveys A suggestion system An open door policy Indirect measures Since upward communication is the most difficult to achieve… Initiatives need to be put in place that facilitate communication
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–16 Improving Downward Communication Open-Book Management A management style in which a company opens its books to the employees, sharing financial data, explaining numbers, and rewarding workers for improvement.
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–17 Improving Horizontal Communication Appoint Liaison Personnel Organize Committees and Task Forces Use Independent Integrators Horizontal Communications We know that informal communication occurs horizontally… The more important issues is what and how is that information monitored and controlled…
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–18 Improving Informal Communications Provide Physical Support Emphasize Informality Maintain Communication Intensity Informal Communications
Copyright © 2004 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.12–19 FIGURE 12–5 Hierarchy of Media Richness and Application for Managerial Applications Source: Adapted from Richard L. Daft and Robert H. Lengel, “Information Richness: A New Approach to Managerial Information Processing and Organization Design,” in Barry Staw and Larry L. Cummings, eds., Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 6 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1984), pp. 191–233. Reprinted from R. Daft and R. Steers, Organizations: A Micro/Macro Approach (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1986) p. 532.
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