Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I 5 May 2010. THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE Germany Rapid industrialization and modernization after unification Bismarck extends vote to."— Presentation transcript:
THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE Germany Rapid industrialization and modernization after unification Bismarck extends vote to all adult males weakens the middle-classes introduces socialist legislation to pre-empt socialist politicians essentially an authoritarian regime emperor at the helm Parliament/military filled with upper-middle-class, aristocratic leaders brought a new balance of power to the Continent strengthened the cause for imperial ventures
THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE France French found new competition with/second place power position to Germany difficult Political and cultural conflicts develop, including the Paris Commune, another revolution political division between monarchists and republicans on the national stage
THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE Great Britain Increased suffrage by 1884 almost all males had the right to vote and could do so democratically Had difficulty extending resources and infrastructure to the empire in both the isles and abroad feared the growing economic strength of the U.S. and Germany in the late 19 th Century
THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE Russia and Austria-Hungary Both weakened by nationalism very ethnically diverse empires Russia remained economically “backwards” Stays authoritarian Alexander’s successors resist all forms of social change Russia’s weakness (politically, economically, militarily) exposed in Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 Austro-Hungarian Empire deeply divided along ethnic lines efforts to maintain empire by force in Balkans creates political tension in Russia that would have disastrous effects
The West Outside of Europe The United States late 19 th Century a period of dramatic economic/social growth Immigrants poured into the country, fueling industrialization 40 million between 1880 and 1920 By 1900 is the world’s leading industrial power absence of government intervention and immigration
The Concert of Europe Established in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna Quadruple Alliance Russia Prussia Austria Great Britain Collective Defense Metternich
The Arms Race Wilhelm II and German aggression Realpolitik versus Weltpolitik Global role for Germany Navy Empire Influence Military Buildup The Navy Wilhelm II models his fleet after Royal Navy England develops new class of ships, “Dreadnought” New Mobilization speeds France: 3 days Germany: 2 days
The Arms Race Land forces Germany: 4, 800,000 men Britain: 380,000 men Russia Rebuilds 1905 defeated by Japanese Refortification and new railways to the West Between 1904 and 1913 French and Russian arms expenditures increase 80% German arms expenditures increase 120% Austro-Hungarian expenditures increase 50% Italian expenditures increase 100% Britain raises naval spending from $50 million in the 1870s to $130 million in 1900
“New Imperialism” and Crisis First Moroccan Crisis Wilhelm II in Tangiers, March 1905 The Bosnian Crisis Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary, October 1908 Serbia seeks aid from Russia, Austria-Hungary from Germany Second Moroccan Crisis German “Panther” sent to port at Agadir, July 1911 Sparks fear in Britain, anger in France France subsequently establishes a full protectorate over Morocco
Diplomacy and New Tensions New Alliance Systems Three Emperors’ League, 1873 (A- H, R, G) Dual Alliance, 1879 (G, A-H) Triple Alliance, 1882 (+Italy) Strong ethnic ties between Germany and Austria-Hungary Italy wants territory in Greece, Turkey, and the Balkans Entente Cordiale, 1904 Triple Entente, 1907
The Outbreak of War Sarajevo, 28 June 1914 Austrian Crown Prince Assassinated by Bosnian nationalist 28 July Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia Belgium, 4 August 1914 Tensions escalated by tensions with Russia over Austro- Serbian conflict Preemptive Strike as Germans push to Paris
1914 Germany invades Belgium. Britain declares war on Germany. Russia Invades Prussia, 17-19 August New allies Japan joins the Allied forces 23 August Turkey joins the Central Powers 29 October War spreads to the seas Battle of the Marne, 6-10 September 1914 French push Germans back 45 miles Germans capture industrial North in France Marks the beginning of the trench deadlock
1915 Total War Women take up men's jobs. Nurses, clerks, postal workers, government workers, auxiliary soldiers, police officers, bus and railway conductors 3 out of 4 munitions workers women Stalemate continues on the Western Front. London attacked from the air by German Zeppelins Bombardments begin 19 January The Lusitania passenger liner is sunk, with 1,200 lives lost. 7 May American passengers aboard, creates diplomatic crisis between US and Germany
1916 Conscription for men aged between 18 and 41 in Britain. A million casualties in ten months: Germany aims to 'bleed France white'. Battle of Verdun, 21 February-July 1916 400,000 casualties on each side Battle of the Somme, 1 July-13 November British and French attack on Germans Bombard the German line for one week with 1.6 million shells 20,000 British soldiers dead the first day; 60% of the Officers involved that day die Total Losses: Britain, 420,000; France, 195,000; Germans, 650,000.
1916-1917 At sea the Battle of Jutland takes place. 31 May to 1 June Largest naval battle at that time No apparent victor United States joins the war and assists the Allies. US declares war on Germany on 6 April First US troops land in France, 26 June
1917 Battle of Passchendaele, 31 July-6 November 1917 2 week bombardment, 4.5 million shells from 3,000 guns. Early august to 20 September: stalemate (weather) Casualties: Allied, 325,000; German, 260,000 Five-mile gain German Army retreats to the Hindenburg Line. Tank, submarine and gas warfare intensifies.
1918 Germany launches major offensive on the Western Front. March 1918 Allies launch successful counter-offensives at the Marne and Amiens. 600,000 US troops cross Atlantic 355,000 British Reserves sent to Continent Armistice signed on November 11, ending the war at 11am.