Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

WORLD WAR I 5 May 2010. THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE  Germany  Rapid industrialization and modernization after unification  Bismarck extends vote to.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR I 5 May 2010. THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE  Germany  Rapid industrialization and modernization after unification  Bismarck extends vote to."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR I 5 May 2010

2 THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE  Germany  Rapid industrialization and modernization after unification  Bismarck extends vote to all adult males weakens the middle-classes introduces socialist legislation to pre-empt socialist politicians  essentially an authoritarian regime emperor at the helm Parliament/military filled with upper-middle-class, aristocratic leaders  brought a new balance of power to the Continent  strengthened the cause for imperial ventures

3 THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE  France  French found new competition with/second place power position to Germany difficult  Political and cultural conflicts develop, including the Paris Commune, another revolution  political division between monarchists and republicans on the national stage

4 THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE  Great Britain  Increased suffrage by 1884 almost all males had the right to vote and could do so democratically  Had difficulty extending resources and infrastructure to the empire in both the isles and abroad  feared the growing economic strength of the U.S. and Germany in the late 19 th Century

5 THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE  Russia and Austria-Hungary  Both weakened by nationalism very ethnically diverse empires  Russia remained economically “backwards” Stays authoritarian Alexander’s successors resist all forms of social change Russia’s weakness (politically, economically, militarily) exposed in Russo-Japanese War of  Austro-Hungarian Empire deeply divided along ethnic lines efforts to maintain empire by force in Balkans creates political tension in Russia that would have disastrous effects

6 The West Outside of Europe  The United States  late 19 th Century a period of dramatic economic/social growth  Immigrants poured into the country, fueling industrialization 40 million between 1880 and 1920  By 1900 is the world’s leading industrial power absence of government intervention and immigration

7 The Concert of Europe  Established in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna  Quadruple Alliance Russia Prussia Austria Great Britain  Collective Defense Metternich

8 Europe, 1815

9 Europe, 1900

10 The Arms Race  Wilhelm II and German aggression  Realpolitik versus Weltpolitik Global role for Germany Navy Empire Influence  Military Buildup The Navy Wilhelm II models his fleet after Royal Navy England develops new class of ships, “Dreadnought” New Mobilization speeds France: 3 days Germany: 2 days

11 The Arms Race Land forces Germany: 4, 800,000 men Britain: 380,000 men Russia Rebuilds 1905 defeated by Japanese Refortification and new railways to the West Between 1904 and 1913 French and Russian arms expenditures increase 80% German arms expenditures increase 120% Austro-Hungarian expenditures increase 50% Italian expenditures increase 100% Britain raises naval spending from $50 million in the 1870s to $130 million in 1900

12 “New Imperialism” and Crisis  First Moroccan Crisis  Wilhelm II in Tangiers, March 1905  The Bosnian Crisis  Annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary, October 1908  Serbia seeks aid from Russia, Austria-Hungary from Germany  Second Moroccan Crisis  German “Panther” sent to port at Agadir, July 1911  Sparks fear in Britain, anger in France France subsequently establishes a full protectorate over Morocco

13 Diplomacy and New Tensions  New Alliance Systems  Three Emperors’ League, 1873 (A- H, R, G)  Dual Alliance, 1879 (G, A-H)  Triple Alliance, 1882 (+Italy) Strong ethnic ties between Germany and Austria-Hungary Italy wants territory in Greece, Turkey, and the Balkans  Entente Cordiale, 1904  Triple Entente, 1907

14 The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente

15 The Outbreak of War  Sarajevo, 28 June 1914  Austrian Crown Prince Assassinated by Bosnian nationalist  28 July Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia  Belgium, 4 August 1914  Tensions escalated by tensions with Russia over Austro- Serbian conflict  Preemptive Strike as Germans push to Paris

16

17 1914  Germany invades Belgium.  Britain declares war on Germany.  Russia Invades Prussia, August  New allies  Japan joins the Allied forces 23 August  Turkey joins the Central Powers 29 October  War spreads to the seas  Battle of the Marne, 6-10 September 1914  French push Germans back 45 miles  Germans capture industrial North in France  Marks the beginning of the trench deadlock

18

19

20 1915  Total War  Women take up men's jobs.  Nurses, clerks, postal workers, government workers, auxiliary soldiers, police officers, bus and railway conductors  3 out of 4 munitions workers women  Stalemate continues on the Western Front.  London attacked from the air by German Zeppelins  Bombardments begin 19 January  The Lusitania passenger liner is sunk, with 1,200 lives lost.  7 May  American passengers aboard, creates diplomatic crisis between US and Germany

21

22

23

24

25 1916  Conscription for men aged between 18 and 41 in Britain.  A million casualties in ten months: Germany aims to 'bleed France white'.  Battle of Verdun, 21 February-July ,000 casualties on each side  Battle of the Somme, 1 July-13 November British and French attack on Germans Bombard the German line for one week with 1.6 million shells 20,000 British soldiers dead the first day; 60% of the Officers involved that day die Total Losses: Britain, 420,000; France, 195,000; Germans, 650,000.

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33  At sea the Battle of Jutland takes place.  31 May to 1 June  Largest naval battle at that time  No apparent victor  United States joins the war and assists the Allies.  US declares war on Germany on 6 April  First US troops land in France, 26 June

34 1917  Battle of Passchendaele, 31 July-6 November 1917  2 week bombardment, 4.5 million shells from 3,000 guns.  Early august to 20 September: stalemate (weather)  Casualties: Allied, 325,000; German, 260,000  Five-mile gain  German Army retreats to the Hindenburg Line.  Tank, submarine and gas warfare intensifies.

35

36 1918  Germany launches major offensive on the Western Front.  March 1918  Allies launch successful counter-offensives at the Marne and Amiens.  600,000 US troops cross Atlantic  355,000 British Reserves sent to Continent  Armistice signed on November 11, ending the war at 11am.


Download ppt "WORLD WAR I 5 May 2010. THE GREAT POWERS IN EUROPE  Germany  Rapid industrialization and modernization after unification  Bismarck extends vote to."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google