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Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinaction What is the quality provision in European.

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Presentation on theme: "Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action www.bsieducation.org/standardsinaction What is the quality provision in European."— Presentation transcript:

1 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action What is the quality provision in European cross-border higher education today? Author: Don Osborn

2 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action The Need to Globilise Higher Education to answer the needs of employers for globalised recruits to respond to EU policy in terms of the mobility of people across member states to exploit the full potential of cross-border university partnerships

3 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action The Current Difficulties limited transparency and readability of qualifications making them not very portable across countries misinformation concerning some qualifications unfair and unreliable recognition procedures across countries

4 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action From Historical Differences Three types of university models: –the Humboldtian model (Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands) freedom of study and teaching independent research independent study –the Napoleonic model (France & Spain) heavily centralised an elitist approach (les grandes écoles) –the Anglo-Saxon model (USA & UK) the emphasis on the personal development of the student

5 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Interpreting Quality Bologna (June 1999) & the golden triangle of goals: bachelor’s, master’s & doctorate quality assurance & accreditation mechanisms ECTS compatible credits

6 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Interpreting Quality Quality assurance: what we are trying to do with a check that we’re actually doing it Quality enhancement: what those who use our systems say about their experience and how we amend our systems to make them better Accreditation: how we show outsiders that we are following quality assurance and quality enhancement

7 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Accreditation getting it means that we have attained the minimum required level of quality it will not necessarily concentrate on our weaknesses

8 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Enhancement this shows how we’re improving things it will put forward the weaknesses in a system that we’re currently amending

9 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action The Link with Total Quality Management TQM is linked to customer satisfaction –but who is the customer in higher education? the student? – after all, he/she is paying the employer? – after all, he/she gets to use the finished product –Can we talk of the raw material – the process of transformation – the finished product in higher education?

10 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Total Quality Management It has little to do with accreditation because... –in TQM, being good enough is not adequate we plan, teach, check, revise and test to see what our students may have missed

11 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe The European Higher Education Area – the aims of the Lisbon Convention on the Recognition of Qualifications concerning Higher Education in the European Region: through the joint declaration of European Ministers of Education in Bologna, June 19th, 1999 – to facilitate the recognition of qualifications across Europe – to ensure that European education becomes a world quality reference

12 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe a study of the progress made in four countries since the Bologna Declaration: Sweden the UK France Estonia Greece

13 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Sweden (39 HEIs) –the stakeholders the higher education institution (autonomy) the students (information) the Ministry of Education and Science (responsibility for HEIs) the National Agency for Higher Education (monitoring HE) the legal background –1993 Higher Education Act –Higher Education Ordinance

14 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Sweden –1999 undergraduate: –three-year Bachelor degree –one year Master degree graduate : –four-year Ph.D. institutional quality audits every 6 years students’ role in curriculum and course design difficulties of comparing programmes

15 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Sweden –2007 (from September) undergraduate: –three-year Bachelor degree –one year Master degree graduate: –four-year Ph.D. subject & programme audits (every 6 years) thematic evaluations, e.g. –internationalising universities –the role of universities in Swedish society students’ role still strong

16 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe The United Kingdom (126 universities with additional HEIs) –the stakeholders: the Quality Assurance Agency (to safeguard standards of education & promote continual enhancement in quality) Higher Education Funding Council (a separate council for England, Scotland, Wales & Northern Ireland) –to distribute public funding to universities and colleges –to monitor spending –to monitor quality in teaching –to provide guidance on good practice the government through the Minister of State for Higher Education & Lifelong Learning the university

17 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe The United Kingdom –1999 undergraduate: –Bachelor’s over 3 years –Bachelor’s (Honours) over 4 years (3 in certain universities) graduate: –one year Master degree –3-year full-time Ph D institutional audits from 2002 by the QAA every 5 years the difficulty of ensuring a response to the needs of employers

18 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe The United Kingdom –2007 revisions to institutional audit from 2006 to correspond to European Standards and Guidelines for QA in HE students’ participation in institutional audit by a written report to the QAA still a disparity between Bachelor’s Honours degrees a highly centralised system encouraging quality enhancement strong link to university funding through the HEFC’s code of practice

19 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe France (85 universities, 3 universities of technology, «30 national polytechnic institutions, specialised schools of higher education) –the stakeholders: universities supervised by the ministry of higher education and research grandes écoles under the responsibility of the ministry but mostly private (often divisions of chambers of commerce) National Council for Higher Education & Research (CNESER) National Evaluation Committee (CNE) Conference des Grandes Ecoles (two chapters)

20 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe France –1999 1st cycle of studies to two-year higher education diplomas 2 nd cycle : »year 1 to licence (bachelor’s) »year 2 to Maïtrise 3rd cycle: one year to: »DEA (research masters) »DESS (specialised masters) – equivalent to Grande Ecole diploma »DEA followed by three-year doctorate

21 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe France –2007 harmonisation with Bologna three-year licence (bachelor’s) two further years to Master (equivalent Grande Ecole diploma) state approval of all institutional diplomas (universities & private schools) private schools looking more towards accreditation by international bodies (AMBA, EQUIS, AACSB)

22 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Estonia (18 universities, 13 applied HEI’s, 17 vocational educational institutions) –the stakeholders: Estonian Ministry of Education Estonian HE Accreditation Centre Estonian HE Quality Assessment Council network of quality assurance committees and agencies from 14 CEE countries

23 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Estonia –1999 reforms based on European & American QA systems undergraduate: –Bakalaureusekraad in 3 or 4 years graduate: –Magistrikraad after 5 years of HE –Doktorikraad after a further 4 years national accreditation system (since 1997) based on: –self evaluation –foreign peer review

24 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Estonia –2007 more university places than national students, therefore –looking at recruitment of foreign nationals institutional accreditation (since Universities Act 2002) –full –conditional programme accreditation transition to a cycle from 1992

25 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Greece (21 publicly-funded universities, 14 technical education institutes & specialised academies) –the stakeholders the state (through the 1975 Constitution and through funding) Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs the participants –university faculty –students

26 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Greece –1999 state monopoly on HE Ptychio Penepistimion after 4 years Post-graduate Diploma of Specialisation after at least one further year faculty and administrators are full civil servants private HEI’s banned obligation of studies in the Greek language

27 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Greece –2007 unrest due to suggested reforms to comply with Bologna demonstrations in July 2006 feeling that HE qualifications are not answering employment needs Lisbon Convention on Recognition of Qualifications still not signed working groups set up since 2005 for correspondence to Bologna government commitment to set up a national QA agency (requiring modification to Constitution) increase in private HEI’s offering foreign degrees

28 Institutionalising Quality in Higher Education in Europe Standards in Action Quality Assurance and Accreditation Mechanisms in Europe Conclusion –variety in approach to QA in higher education in Europe: Sweden –broad range of participation in debate seeking consensus UK –strong centralised approach to QA strongly linked to funding Estonia –looking for best practices in QA from other countries Greece –continued desire of particpants to maintain national independence through the status quo – suggesting: difficulties (impossibility?) to establish one system by 2010


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