Presentation on theme: "Angela Carvalho 2012. Paired Conjunctions Angela Carvalho 2012 Choices, choices, choices... You can stay here. You can go upstairs. You can study hard."— Presentation transcript:
Angela Carvalho 2012 Choices, choices, choices... You can stay here. You can go upstairs. You can study hard. You can go to the beach. You can behave. You can leave. You can’t smoke here. You can’t loiter here.
Angela Carvalho 2012 You can either stay here or go upstairs. You can either study hard or go to the beach. You can either behave or leave. You can neither smoke here nor loiter here. Choices, choices, choices...
Angela Carvalho 2012 Paired Conjunctions & Pronunciation Either...or Neither... Nor Not only... But (also) Either /a I δәr/ or /i:δәr/ Neither /na I δәr/ or /ni:δәr/
Angela Carvalho 2012 Giving two choices Use ‘either or’ eitherI’ll either send her an email or telephone her. Cell phones should be either turned off or left at home. Either smoke outside or do not smoke at all.
Angela Carvalho 2012 Attention to subject-verb agreement Either Paul or his friends are coming. Either Paul’s friends or Paul himself is coming. Either the mayor or local businesspeople need to decide. Either local businesspeople or the mayor needs to decide. CONCLUSION: –THE VERB AGREES WITH THE SUBJECT CLOSER TO THE VERB
Angela Carvalho 2012 With infinitives They should have the courtesy to either turn their phones off or leave them at home.
Angela Carvalho 2012 Neither... Nor Negative meaning E.g. –Is eating acceptable in class? No –Is chewing gum acceptable in class? No Neither eating nor chewing gum is acceptable in class. I would allow neither spitting nor littering on the street. Smoke is neither good for you nor pleasant to be around.
Angela Carvalho 2012 Not only...but (also) Sue bought not only a coat but also a dress. Sue not only works here, but she also lives here. Sue not only works here, but also lives here. Not only does Sue work here, but she also lives here. Not only did Sue buy a coat, but she also bought a dress.
Angela Carvalho 2012 Both...and / either / neither Both Peter and John are at my party. A: Do you like these kittens? Well, you can have both. B: No! He can have either of them. A: Which one do you prefer? B: I don’t mind either. A: Which one do you like? C: Neither. I don’t like cats!
Angela Carvalho 2012 A: Did you like both novels? B: Actually, I liked neither of them. C: I did’t like either. B and C have the same opinion about the novels. My friends, sally and Sam, were involved in a car accident, but luckily neither of them was hurt. Could you please help me? Either of you!
Angela Carvalho 2012 Conclusion Both...and = both the two things or people Either...or = one or the other of the two Neither...nor = none of them Attention: When neither is the subject of the sentence, it is usually wsed with a singular verb: Neither of the books was published. Attention: But in spoken English, a plural verb is sometimes used. Neither of us are going!
Angela Carvalho 2012 More examples: so and too I like dance music. Sarah likes dance music. –I like dance music and Sarah does too. –I like dance music and so does Sarah. I am a big fan of Fred. Mary is a big fan of Fred. –I’m a big fan of Fred and so is Mary. –I’m a big fan of Fred and Mary is too.
Angela Carvalho 2012 More Examples Sam doesn’t like milk. Jon doesn’t like milk. –Sam doesn’t like milk and Jon doesn’t either. –Sam doesn’t like milk and neither does Jon. I have just arrived. Sam has just arrived. –I have just arrived and so has Sam. –I have just arrived and Sam has too.
Angela Carvalho 2012 Credits Summit 1A by Joan Saslow and Allen Ascher Slides by Teacher Angela Carvalho