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Water Pollution Chapters 18

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1 Water Pollution Chapters 18
Environmental Science: A Global Concern Advanced Placement Environmental Science GNHS

2 Water Quality Definitions
Contaminant - any element in the water harmful despite its origin and whether it occurs in the watershed, source or in a water supply system Pollutant - any element in the water source harmful that is of anthropogenic origin Contaminants Contaminants Pollutants mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

3 Water Pollution Any chemical, biological and physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes it unusable for agriculture The massive quantity of pollutants produced by > 6 billion humans, their machines, plants, animals The limited supply of fresh liquid water into which most water-destined pollutants are discharged The growing number of ‘technological pollutants’ released into the environment, i.e. manufactured synthetic materials In general, water pollution is concerned with 3 issues, huge as they are: Remember 0.6% of the worlds total water supply? Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

4 World Population—Right Now!

5 Types & Sources of Pollution
Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

6 Case Study: Chesapeake Bay
Largest estuary in U.S. Severely degraded by water pollution from 6 states Deposition of air pollutants Fig. 12–24 © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

7 Sources of Pollution Point sources (e.g., factories, sewage treatment plants, mines, oil wells, oil tankers) Nonpoint sources (e.g., acid deposition, substances picked up in runoff, seepage into groundwater) Agriculture is largest source of water pollution in the U.S. (64% of pollutants into streams and 57% of pollutants entering lakes) © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

8 Types of Pollution Inorganic Plant Nutrients – nitrogen and phosphorus
Oxygen Demanding Agents – organic waste: manure Disease-causing Agents – pathogens Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals – acids, toxic metals Organic Chemicals – oil, pesticides, detergents Sediment or Suspended Material – erosion, soil

9 Types of Pollution Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes – radon uranium
Heat – electric and nuclear power plants Genetic Pollution

10 from nitrates & phosphates.

11 Accelerated results with human input of nutrients to a lake
Eutrophication Accelerated results with human input of nutrients to a lake © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

12 E. coli outbreak in Walkerton
In May 2000 the small community of Walkerton, Ontario was laid waste by a toxic strain of E. coli:0157. The contamination came from the public water supply. Six people died in the first week including a two year old daughter of a local medical doctor. Four new cases surfaced in late July, all very young children. Over a thousand innocent people were infected. The primary cause was manure spread on a farm near a well…but the fault was that the Walkerton PUC workers did not monitor the water quality, in some cases falsifying entries into their logs…. Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

13 Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
BOD: Oxygen is removed from water when organic matter is consumed by bacteria. Low oxygen conditions may kill fish and other organisms. Sources of organic matter Natural inputs-- bogs, swamps, leaf fall, and vegetation aligning waterways. Human inputs-- pulp and paper mills, meat-packing plants, food processing industries, and wastewater treatment plants. Nonpoint inputs-- runoff from urban areas, agricultural areas, and feedlots.

14 BOD Effects on Water Quality
All streams have some capability to degrade organic waste. Problems occur when stream is overloaded with biochemical oxygen-demanding waste.

15 Indicator Tests Total coliform [Endo agar] Fecal coliform [m-FC agar]
Fecal streptococci [M-enterococcus] Prescott et al., Microbiology Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio

16 Fish Die

17 Waterborne Bacteria Disease symptoms usually are explosive emissions from either end of the digestive tract Escherichia coli Vibrio sp. Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio

18 Waterborne Protozoans
Disease symptoms are usually explosive emissions from either end of the digestive tract *P. Darben Giardia sp.* Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio

19 Waterborne Human Viruses
Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis E virus Norwalk virus* Rotavirus* *F. Williams Barbara E. Moore, Ph.D., Department of Biology, University of Texas at San Antonio

20 Case Study on Eradicating Dracunculiasis
Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

21 Guinea Worm Disease People have suffered from Guinea Worms for centuries – the “fiery serpent” was mentioned in the bible People are infected by drinking water that contain the larvae in a tiny freshwater crustacean called Cyclops A year later, larvae mature into 3 feet worms that emerge through skin blisters This is such a painful process that men and women can’t work, children can’t attend school Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

22 The Guinea Worm grows down the leg and its sex organs appear at the ankle or on the foot usually, bursting when it senses water, releasing ova. Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

23 No vaccine for Guinea worm is available.
People do not seem to build up any resistance and the disease can be reinfected over and over. No research is being conducted for any vaccine or cure. Worms are removed slowly each day by winding around a stick. Water and Sanitation – Critical Elements in Development - Mike Lee Hayward

24 Heavy Metals Metallic elements having a density greater than 5 g/cm3
Most are extremely toxic Water soluble Readily absorbed into plant or animal tissue Bioconcentrate Combine with biomolecules Proteins Nucleic acids Heavy Metals by Dr. Jena Hamra

25 Sources of Heavy Metals
Natural Redistributed by geologic and biologic cycles Industrial: Lead, cadmium, mercury Burning of fossil fuels Environmental pollution Heavy Metals by Dr. Jena Hamra

26 Buffering Capacity Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water, which are located in watersheds whose soils have a limited “buffering capacity” Lakes and streams become acidic when the water itself and its surrounding soil cannot buffer the acid rain enough to neutralize it Some lakes now have a pH value of less than 5

27 Effects on Wildlife Generally, the young of most species are more sensitive to environmental conditions than adults At pH 5, most fish eggs cannot hatch At lower pH levels, some adult fish die Some acid lakes have no fish

28 Biological Magnification
concentrations increase at increasing levels in the food chain – PCBs, DDT, etc. Fig. 12–20 © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

29 Degradable/Biodegradable
Degradable: That can be chemically decomposed: decomposable plastic wastes Photodegradable: that the product is decomposed (broken down) by exposure to light Biodegradable: Capable of being decomposed by biological agents, especially bacteria: a biodegradable detergent Degradable: these days, the FDA is approving more and more artificial and natural degradable polymers (plastics) as implants….artificial limbs, screws to strengthen healing bones. need to emphasize degradability as one of several solutions to our waste disposal problems. So, we all know by now that the success of the Plastics Industry during the last 15 years has been overwhelming. The flip side of that success is the volume of plastic products now being discarded every year. The volume of post-consumer plastic waste is building up rapidly. Given the increased level of environmental awareness and the alleged decline in landfill capacity, alternate solutions have to be found to dispose of this rapidly accumulating tonnage of waste. Right now, we only have the capacity to recycle 7% of the plastics we use, over the next 10 years, degradable plastics will begin playing a crucial role in helping solve our waste disposal problems. Photodegradable:This term is most commonly used on plastic products such as trash bags and agricultural mulch film, and is often accompanied by the phrase "Will break down into small pieces if left uncovered in sunlight." To be labeled as such, the material must have the proven capability to decompose in the most common environment in which it is disposed within one year through physical processes, such as exposure to heat and light, into nontoxic carbonaceous soil, water, or carbon dioxide. The claim biodegradable is often associated with environmentally friendly products. What exactly does this mean? I would define it as being able to be broken down by natural processes, into more basic components. Products are usually broken down by bacteria, fungi or other simple organisms. By this definition, most chemicals are biodegradable; the only thing differing would be the amount of time it takes to break down. A piece of bread will break down rather quickly, whereas a piece of plastic will take decades and beyond. Rate of breakdown may not be as important as what the product breaks down into. The ideal final products of any complex product of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen would be Carbon Dioxide(CO2) and Water (H2O). A majority of products are made mostly of these three elements. The previously mentioned piece of bread is made mostly of these, and after breaking down from complex sugars to simpler sugars, will eventually degrade to CO2 and H2O. This process would be accelerated if we ate the bread and our body would break it down and use it as energy, until only CO2 and H2O are left. In a perfect would all products would break down to CO2 and H2O. It gets more complicated with different chemicals. The banned pesticide DDT, is hazardous and toxic in its own right. It does biodegrade, rather slowly. The problem is that its breakdown products of DDD and DDE are even more toxic and dangerous than the original DDT. I ran across a popular cleaning product that proudly claims to be "biodegradable" and even has an environmentally pleasing name and color. The main (active) cleaning chemical is a nonylphenolethoxylate (NPE), made solely of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. This class of chemicals are considered suspicious because they are possible endocrine disruptors. This means they may mimic the endocrine hormones and may cause havoc with a female's reproductive system. NPE's do biodegrade to a benzene ring type structure and other simpler structures. This biodegrading may or may not lead to a less hazardous chemical, but still hazardous. Although it is biodegradable, this product is by no means environmentally friendly. STARCH-BASED biodegradable plastic, based on technology invented by a scientist at a Kerala research institute, is being commercially manufactured by an Indian firm. Corn and maize starch….will biodegrade in 6 months Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

30 Erosion Sediment (clay, silt) is the #1 source of water pollution. Bare soil easily washes into storm drains and streams, clouding the water and suffocating aquatic life. Never leave soil exposed! Place straw over newly seeded areas. Cover your garden during winter months. Sod, seed, grow plants, or build terraces on slopes. Rock gardens can also be effective for slowing the flow of water and minimizing erosion.

31 Effects of Sediment Loading
Destruction of spawning beds Adsorption and transport of other pollutants Reduced light penetration, aquatic vegetation Greater nutrients loadings, oxygen demand Interference with navigation, flood control, recreation, industry

32 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

33 China Syndrome In a complete reactor meltdown, the extremely hot (about 2700º Celsius) molten uranium fuel rods would melt through the bottom of the reactor and actually sink about 50 feet into the earth beneath the power plant Molten uranium would react with groundwater, producing large explosions of radioactive steam and debris that would affect nearby towns and population centers

34 William Lawless At Savannah River, South Carolina, the US Department of Energy ran plutonium production reactors (to make plutonium for bombs) and a reprocessing plant (to separate plutonium from spent nuclear fuel) William Lawless was surprised when -- with no prior experience -- he was put in charge of radioactive waste management at the huge military complex Source:

35 Whistleblower Lawless wanted to do a good job, so he started asking some pointed questions: Why were liquid radioactive wastes being poured into shallow trenches, where they could leak into the soil and enter the surface waters? Why were solid plutonium-contaminated wastes being buried in cardboard boxes and covered with earth? He was told to keep quiet Instead, he went public, and promptly lost his job Source:

36 Post Whistle-Blowing He was hired to teach mathematics at a local college, which enabled him to make a living while he kept on talking -- to the press, on national radio and TV -- about shoddy waste management practices at Savannah River Since then, all plutonium production reactors and reprocessing plants have been shut down not only at Savannah River but throughout the US, and environmental cleanup has become a priority Source:

37 Industrial Water Pollution
Thermal Pollution occurs when water is withdrawn, used for cooling purposes, and then heated water is returned to its original source An increase in temperature, even a few degrees, may significantly alter some aquatic ecosystems

38 Waste Heat A pollutant as dangerous to waters as more tangible of forms of waste On national scale, industrial cooling waters is a first-order source of heat Electric power generation uses 80% of cooling waters Past experience has indicated that thermal pollution has not multiplied as fast as power generation because of improvements in thermal plant efficiency and development of hydropower Nuclear plants - waste even higher proportion of heat than fossil-fuel plants

39 Types and Sources of Pollution
Disease-causing Agents - Pathogens Oxygen Demanding Agents Water-soluble Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Plant Nutrients Organic Chemicals Sediment or Suspended Material Water-soluble Radioactive Isotopes Heat Genetic Pollution

40 Hydrilla: Non-native Aquatic Plant
Dense mats alter water quality raising pH decreasing oxygen under the mats increasing temperature stagnant water good breeding grounds for mosquitoes Hydrilla will grow with less light and fewer nutrients, and can out compete other native and non-native plant Fish populations are negatively affected if hydrilla exceeds 30-40% coverage of the lake non-native aquatic plant that is spreading rapidly in many Texas water bodies. This fast growing plant is native to Africa, Australia, and parts of Asia but was introduced to Florida in 1960 via the aquarium trade. In Florida, specially designed aquatic plant harvesters are used to cut and collect hydrilla from waterways. Hydrilla harvesting is mainly performed to open boat lanes through hydrilla beds for navigation. Because hydrilla produces more biomass per square meter than most aquatic plants, the cost of harvesting hydrilla is generally higher than for harvesting other nuisance species such as Eurasian watermilfoil. Harvesting costs on the Potomac River were about $1,200 per acre Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

41 Pollution of Streams and Lakes
Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

42 Rivers Rivers have been easy targets for dumping of sewage and industrial wastes Many rivers that are in industrial areas are so polluted and low in oxygen that very few species can live in them anymore The Rhine, Danube, Illinois, Cuyahoga, and Mississippi are the worst examples of polluted rivers

43 Pollution of Streams and Lakes
flowing water can recover rapidly by dilution and decay © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

44 Case Study: Great Lakes
Basin contains >95% of fresh surface water in U.S. and 20% of world Severe cultural eutrophication in 1960s (e.g., Lake Erie) $20 billion pollution–control program improved water quality since 1972 Fig. 12–22 © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

45 Pollution of Streams and Lakes
water pollution laws of 1970s greatly increased number and quality of wastewater treatment plants in U.S. also improvements in Canada, Japan, and most western European countries; large fish kills and contamination of drinking water still occur, especially in developing countries; lakes, reservoirs and ponds more vulnerable to contamination than streams because of less mixing and aeration. © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

46 Ocean Pollution Types and Sources of Pollution
Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

47 Ocean Pollution Coastal areas most impacted – especially wetlands and estuaries, coral reefs, and mangrove swamps Half of world's population lives within 100 km (60 miles) of oceans and 14 of 15 largest cities coastal About 35% of U.S. municipal sewage discharged virtually untreated in ocean waters Dumping of industrial waste directly into ocean off U.S. coasts stopped, but many countries still dump large quantities of toxic substances Ocean is the ultimate repository of waste © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

48 Pollution in Coastal Waters
Coastal waters especially are highly affected by pollution because they are: Heavily used Close to sources of pollution Shallow-water bodies Not as well circulated as the open ocean Coastal pollution is made up of ocean pollution and ocean debris Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

49 Main Types of Ocean Pollution
Petroleum (oil) Sewage sludge DDT and PCBs Mercury Point source: clearly discernable in terms of origin (municipal sewage outfall, oil tanker spills, offshore oil well blowouts) Non-point-source pollution: ill-defined or diffused sources, runoff (harbors and marinas, TBT, powerboat pollution, invasive species, agriculture, forestry, urban runoff, ocean debris, air pollution, noise pollution, dredging Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

50 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum
Oil spills can be caused by: Tanker accidents Intentional dumping Drilling/ pumping operations Major oil spills into the ocean are a fact of our modern oil-powered economy… Can be the result of : loading/unloading accidents, collisions, or tankers running aground, like the 1989 Exxon Valdez Others are intentionally created, like the oil spilled in the Persian gulf war in 1991 Or the blowout of an undersea oil well during drilling or pumping… Ixtoc #1 oil well, gulf of Mexico…1979 Bay of Campeche blowout and oil slick, affected up the Texas coast. The well blew out, caught fire, and flowed for 10 months, spilling 140 million gallons of oil into the gulf…the world’s largest oil spill from an oil well. Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

51 Effects of Oil Spills Volatile Organics Compounds immediately kill many of the aquatic organisms (especially plankton and larvae) and contaminate fish Floating oil coats birds and ocean mammal; destroys natural insulation and buoyancy and causes deaths Heavy oil sinks to ocean bottom and washes into estuaries where it contaminates crabs, oysters, mussels, clams, etc. Oil slicks on beaches harm intertidal life and cause economic losses to tourism and fishing industries © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

52 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum
When oil washes up at a beach, it can negatively affect the ocean environment Oil can coat ocean organisms and render their insulating fur or feathers useless Oil on the beach from the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

53 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum
Petroleum is biodegradable Many pollution experts consider oil to be among the least damaging ocean pollutants Data from the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill shows the recovery of key organisms Oil is a hydrocarbon, composed of hydrogen and carbon, organic substances, so they can be broken down or biodegraded by microorganisms… In fact, natural undersea oil seeps have occurred for millions of years… Still oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other substances, including oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and other trace metals. When this mixture mixes with sea water, the results are usually devastating for ocean organisms…we really only know what happens to the ones we can see… Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

54 Ocean Pollution: Petroleum
Various processes act to break up and degrade oil in the ocean environment When oil enters the ocean, it initially floats, oil is less dense than water and forms a slick at the surface Where it starts to break down through natural processes. The volatile, lighter components of crude oil evaporate over the first few days, leaving behind a more viscous substance that aggregates into tar balls and eventually sinks…this also coats suspended particles, which settle to the seafloor as well If the floating oil hasn’t dispersed (wind, waves, currents) it can be collect with specially designed skimmers or absorbent materials and disposed of somewhere else….however, wind, waves, and currents will disperse an oil slick and mix it with water to make a frothy substance called ‘mousse’ bacteria and solar radiation (photooxidation) can break this oil down into compounds that mix with water…. bacteria or fungi can be used in a clean up process to biodegrade oil…called bioremediation. Exxon, spent $10 million to spread fertilizers rich in phosphorus and nitrogen on shorelines to boost the growth of indigenous bacteria that breaks down oil….the cleanup rate was more than twice that of natural conditions. Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

55 Case Study: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
March 24, 1989, tanker in Prince William Sound, Alaska, worst oil spill in U.S. waters Coated 1,600 of shoreline, killed wildlife, and caused serious contamination Exxon spent $2.2 billion on direct cleanup + $1 billion fines and damages; another $5 billion being appealed © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

56 Exxon valdez spilled almost 11
Exxon valdez spilled almost 11.6 million gallons of oil into a pristine wilderness area in crude oil from northern Alaska is carried by the pipeline down to Valdez, where it is loaded onto supertankers (can hold 53 million gallons) Ran aground on a shallowly submerged rocky outcrop, Bligh Reef. What spilled out was only 22% of her cargo, into Prince William Sound into the Gulf of Alaska, fouled over 1775 km of coastline (1100 miles) Right after the spill, Exxon spent over 2.5 billion in cleanup and $900 million in subsequent years for restoration. Molly McCammon, executive director of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council, the sound will need much more time to heal. "It is clear that the oil spill affected areas have still not recovered from that earlier devastation. We know that while there is progress toward recovery, there is still oil on the beaches. We know that weathered oil can still be toxic at very low levels. We know that many resources are still not recovered and we know that the people of the region have not healed." The trustee council was established following the Alaska spill to protect habitat and monitor recovery of Prince William Sound. That means rebuilding lost populations of fish, birds, and animals. By official counts, the spill killed 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 harbor seals, 250 bald eagles and 22 killer whales. Numerous other species, from salmon to clams, also suffered casualties. More than 500 miles of remote wilderness shoreline was oiled. Yet a decade later, the river otter and the bald eagle are the only species to have recovered. Thirteen other species, such as salmon, harbor seals, and several seabirds, are listed as "recovering." Still other species, such as the sound's killer whales, have shown little sign of bouncing back, SENNER: "Killer whales have shown some small progress since the oil spill back in We've seen a gain of some three animals to the injured AB pod since However, we continue to place this species in the not recovering category because when you have an animal that lives to be 30 to 50 years old, it's simply premature to declare we've got real progress here." Sea otters--those cuddly ocean mammals that became the poster children of the oil spill--were among the hardest hit. In heavily oiled areas, sea otters have had to cope with long-term exposure to oil. Stan Senner says it may take twenty more years for these populations to fully recover. But not all the news is bad. To protect birds and animals, the trustee council spent $400 million dollars, from an out of court civil settlement with Exxon, to buy 650,000 acres of wilderness in the spill area. Molly McCammon says protecting habitat will ensure the recovery of the sound's ecosystem. McCAMMON: "These lands include 1,500 miles of shoreline, more than 300 salmon streams--incredible habitat for all of the species listed up here today." Yet to some, the most fitting conclusion to this ten-year ordeal is the end of Captain Joseph Hazelwood's legal appeals. Convicted in 1990 of illegally discharging oil he will this summer begin 1,000 hours of community service. He'll spend that time picking up trash along Alaska's highways. Two sea otters, victims of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, recuperate at a rehab facility set up in a remote cove in Kachemak Bay Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

57 Exxon Valdez only #53???? Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

58 Ocean Pollution: Sewage Sludge
Sewage sludge is the semisolid material that remains after sewage treatment Much sewage sludge was dumped offshore until laws restricted sewage dumping Sewage treated at a facility typically undergoes primary treatment, where solids are allowed to settle and water to separate, and secondary treatment, where it is exposed to bacteria-killing chlorine….sewage sludge remains It contains a toxic brew of human waste, oil, zinc, copper, lead, silver, mercury, pesticides, and other chemicals. Since the 1960’s, about 500,000 metric tons of sewage sludge were dumped into the coastal waters of southern California, more than 8 million tons in the New York Bight. Clean water act in 1972 prohibited dumping sewage into the ocean after 1981, but the cost was prohibitive, so extensions and waivers were given to many cities….remember in 1988, all the syringes and garbage that washed up on the Atlantic coast? Here’s where sewage sludge was disposed of from New York and Philadelphia…95feet deep at New York Site 58 sq miles, 130 feet deep in Philadelphia (92 sq miles)…very shallow, everything goes right to the bottom, species diversity takes a dive and some areas are completely anoxic with such a concentration of organic and inorganic matter. They moved it in 1986 to a deep water site 106 miles out to sea….fishers began noticing lower catches, and people were worried the sludge would go out into the Gulf Stream, now they dispose of sewage on land. Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

59 Ocean Pollution: DDT DDT was a widely used pesticide that became concentrated in ocean fish DDT caused brown pelicans and ospreys to produce thin egg shells Worldwide, DDT has been banned from agricultural use but is still found in developing countries… DDT was widely used in agriculture during the 1950’s, US production banned in 1971, by that time, 4.4 billion pounds had been manufactured, banned in the states by the EPA in 1972 The danger of excessive use of DDT first became apparent in the ocean env. when it affected ocean bird populations. During the 1960’s, there was a serious decline in the brown pelican population of Anacapa Island off s. California…high concentrations of DDT in the fish eaten by the birds had caused them to produce eggs with excessively thin shells. Same thing happened to the osprey in Long Island Sound, Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

60 Ocean Pollution: PCBs PCBs are industrial chemicals used as liquid coolants and insulation in industrial equipment such as power transformers PCBs enter the ocean environment through leaks and from discarded equipment PCBs can accumulate in animal tissues and affect reproduction PCB’s have been indicated as causes of spontaneous abortions in sea lions and the death of shrimp in Florida Both DDT and PCB’s (banned in 1977) generally enter the ocean through the atmosphere and river runoff. They are concentrated initially in a thin slick of organic chemicals at the ocean surface, and then they gradually sick to the bottom, attached to sinking particles….about 10 to 12 times more concentrated in coastal areas/ DDT and PCB’s are so pervasive in the ocean environment that even Antarctic ocean organisms contain measurable quantities…no agriculture or industry…wind and ocean currents Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

61 Ocean Pollution: Mercury and Minamata Disease
Mercury has many industrial uses but is extremely toxic A chemical plant released large quantities of mercury into Minamata Bay, Japan Residents who ate highly contaminated fish suffered neurological disease and birth disorders Minamata is a farming and fishing area on the west coast of the southern Island of Kyushu. The town is located on Minimata Bay on the Shiranui Sea. Minimata is also a factory town and the largest factory is run by the Chisso chemical company. Construction of the factory began in In 1932 Chisso began producing acetaldehyde, which is used in making plastics, drugs, perfumes and photographic chemicals. Mercury was used in the process as a catalyst. In 1956 a strange disease became an epidemic in Minimata. The sickness came to be known as Minimata disease. The mercury was discharged into the bay, where bacteria degraded it into a form where it was ingested by ocean organisms…. Mercury poisoning showed up in 1953, known there as Minimata disease, which degenerates the nervous system…this was the first major human disaster resulting from ocean pollution. The Japanese government did not announce mercury as the cause of the disease until 1968… By 1970, 47 fishing families had the disease, over 100 people, ½ died… The government officially recognizes 2,265 victims - 1,435 already dead - of the dumpings in the bay in southern Japan, Some victims died after eating mercury-tainted fish, while others suffered spasms and blurred vision. Babies of poisoned mothers were born with gnarled limbs. Reports of victims began appearing in the 1950s. Another 15,000 people have registered with the government as victims of mercury poisoning - but that number could more than double under new research that suggests weaker concentrations of the chemical than previously thought can cause brain damage and birth defects. ``Twenty-thousand more could very easily be damaged, that we can clearly say,'' said Shigeo Ekino, a professor at the Kumamoto University medical school who is spearheading new attempts to identify what concentrations pose a danger level to humans. Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

62 Mercury bioaccumulates, which means that Although organisms are able to moderate the concentrations of most substances within their bodies, some substances cannot be regulated and consequently tend to become more concentrated in living tissues as they move through the food chain. Consequently if toxins capable of bioaccumulating are present in a system, the organisms at the top of the food chain are likely to suffer the most. Probably the most famous and best documented of all bioaccumulants are mercury and DDT. This graph shows mercury concentrations in fish vs consumption rates for various countries. It shows that risk increases with the increased consumption of fish and that the higher the mercury concentration in the fish, the greater the risk.. FDA established a limit of mercury consumption for fish at 1ppm, in places where people eat a lot more fish, the safe mercury level is a lot lower… Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

63 Ocean Pollution: Point Source
Are clearly discernible in terms of origin Originate from municipal and industrial facilities Bypasses and overflows from municipal sewage systems Oil tanker spills and offshore oil well blowouts Those are really what we’ve been talking about….. Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

64 Ocean Pollution: Non-Point Source
Non-point-source pollution comes from material washed down storm drains as “poison runoff” Includes fertilizers, pesticides, road oil, and trash Any type of pollution entering the surface water system from sources other than underwater pipelines…. Mostly, non-point source pollution in coastal and urban areas arrive at the ocean directly from storm drains. Because non-point source pollution comes from so many locations and sources, its difficult to pinpoint where it originates, though the cause may be readily apparent, like trash that is washed down a storm drain… Pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture, oil from cars when it rains. The amount of road oil and improperly disposed oil regularly discharged each year into US waters is as much as 26 times the amount of the Exxon Valdez oil spill! Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

65 Plastic in the Ocean Environment
Either does not biodegrade or not in human time… Floats Has high strength Is ingested by and entangles ocean animals However, plastic floats, and is not biodegradable, and strangles ocean organisms and birds that have been caught in plastic netting and packing straps….ocean turtles have been killed when they ingested plastic bags, mistaking them for plankton or jellyfish…so it is illegal to dump plastic anywhere in the ocean.. Female northern elephant seal Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

66 Groundwater Pollution
Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

67 Groundwater Pollution
Greater threat to humans than much of more visible surface water pollution Much groundwater renewed slowly, such that pollution lingers for long time Crude estimates indicate that up to 25% of usable groundwater in the U.S. contaminated Extremely difficult to clean up contaminated groundwater; prevention more effective Main approach: pump groundwater to surface, purifying water, and returning to aquifer; costs high © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich


69 75% of 175,000 known waste disposal sites in US may be producing hazardous subsurface plumes (contaminated regions of the subsurface) Into the watertable……the zone of saturation Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

70 Groundwater Pollution
Salt Water Intrusion Extensive pumping in coastal areas can cause salt water to rise into wells, forming a cone of ascension

71 Prevention Reduce sources that feed into the aquifer;
Monitor aquifers near landfills and underground storage tanks; Require leak detection systems and liability insurance for existing and new underground tanks that store hazardous liquids; Ban or more strictly regulate disposal of hazardous wastes in deep injection wells and landfills; Store hazardous liquids aboveground with more safeguards. © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

72 Drinking Water Quality
Types and Sources of Pollution Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

73 Drinking Water Quality
Much of the world's drinking water is contaminated and poses serious health threats Most drinking water is purified by storage in reservoir (suspended matter settles), and treated by sand filters, activated charcoal, and addition of chlorine U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 requires EPA to establish national drinking water standards Many using bottled water and home filters; bottled water is often more contaminated than tap water © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP Water Resources and Water Pollution by Paul Rich

74 Water Quality Standards
The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) sets Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water There are standards for numerous contaminants, two of which cause an immediate health threat if exceeded Coliform bacteria -because they may indicate presence of disease causing organisms Nitrate - can cause ‘blue baby syndrome”—nitrate reacts with blood and blood can’t carry as much oxygen

75 Municipal Water Purification Plant

76 Water Treatment Stages
Depending on the type of treatment plant and the quality of raw water, treatment generally proceeds in the following sequence of stages: 1. Screening 2. Aeration 3. pH correction 4. Coagulation and flocculation 5. Sedimentation 6. Pre-chlorination and dechlorination 7. Filtration 8. Disinfection 9. pH adjustment As required, adsorption or other advanced process will be added, depending on the chemistry of the treated water. mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

77 Initial Stages Screening - the removal of any coarse floating objects, weeds, etc. from the water. Aeration - dissolving oxygen into the water to remove smell and taste, promote helpful bacteria to grow, and precipitate nuisance metals like iron and manganese. pH correction - preparing for coagulation and to help precipitate metals. mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

78 Major Clean Up Coagulation and flocculation - causes the agglomeration and sedimentation of suspended solid particles through the addition of a coagulating agent (usually aluminum sulfate and/or iron sulfate) to the raw water along with a polymer to help form a floc. Sedimentation - Floc settles out and is scraped and vacuumed off the bed of large sedimentation tanks. Clarified water drains out of the top of these tanks in a giant decanting process. Pre-chlorination and dechlorination - mostly to kill algae that would otherwise grow and clog the water filters. Also kills much of the remaining unprotected bacteria. mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

79 Coagulation Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University ( mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

80 Sedimentation Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University ( mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

81 Filtering Out What’s Left
Either slow or rapid filtration (depends on size of plant/volume of water considerations) Rapid-sand filters force water through a m layer of sand (d= mm) and work faster, needing a smaller area. But they need frequent back-washing Slow-sand filters (d= mm) require a much larger area but reduce bacteriological and viral levels to a greater degree due to the Schmutzdecke layer. The top 1 inch must be periodically scraped off and the filter occasionally back-washed mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

82 Filtration Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University ( mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

83 Final Touches Disinfection - water completely free of suspended sediment is treated with a powerful oxidizing agent usually chlorine, chlorine then ammonia (chloramine), or ozone. A residual disinfectant is left in the water to prevent reinfection. Chlorine can form harmful byproducts and has suspected links to stomach cancer and miscarriages. Many agencies now residually disinfect with Chloramine. pH adjustment - so that treated water leaves the plant in the desired range of 6.5 to 8.5 pH units. mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

84 Additional Steps Heavy metal removal: most treatment plants do not have special stages for metals but rely on oxygenation, coagulation and ion exchange in filters to remove them. If metals persist, additional treatment would be needed Troublesome organics: Activated carbon filters are required where soluble organic constituents are present because many will pass straight through standard plants, e.g. pesticides, phenols, MTBE and so forth mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

85 Adsorption Rachel Casiday, Greg Noelken, and Regina Frey, Washington University ( mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

86 Water Treatment Virtual Tours
A number of water suppliers have helpful and interesting virtual tours of their facilities on the web: The City of Tempe Az: The City of Arlington Tx: Central Coast Water Authority, CA: mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

87 Waste Water Treatment Types and Sources of Pollution
Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

88 Treatment Objectives Wastewater treatment systems take human and industrial liquid wastes and make them safe enough (from the public health perspective) to return to the aquatic or terrestrial environment. In some cases, wastewater can be clean enough for reuse for particular purposes. Wastewater treatment systems use the same processes of purification that would occur in a natural aquatic system only they do it faster and in a controlled situation. mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

89 Sewage or Wastewater Treatment
Sewage or wastewater is composed of sewage or wastewater from: Domestic used water and toilet wastes Rainwater Industrial effluent (Toxic industrial water is pretreated) Livestock wastes ** microbes degrade organic compounds ** elimination of pathogens occurs

90 Wastewater Treatment Types of treatment systems include: Septic Tanks or Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Septic Tanks typically treat small volumes of waste (e.g., from a single household, small commercial/industral) WWTPs typically treat larger volumes of municipal or industrial waste.

91 Decentralized Alternatives
In rural areas or in particular urban communities in the U.S., human wastewater will be treated through individual septic tank systems (pumped or leachfield varieties) Wastewater is filtered, microorganisms killed and chemicals adsorbed and/or diluted in its passage through the soils and rocks of the leachfield In developing countries, urban wastewater is seldom treated and instead flows raw through collectors to receiving water bodies (like in the US 100 years ago) The solution for many developing nations is centralized oxidation lagoon systems (but this needs space) or the use of individual ventilated pit-latrines, especially for shanty towns and rural villages mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

92 Septic Tanks Approx. 22 million systems in operation ( 30% of US population) Suitability determined by soil type, depth to water table, depth to bedrock and topography Commonly fail due to poor soil drainage Potential contaminants: bacteria, heavy metals, nutrients, synthetic organic chemicals (e.g. benzene)


94 Sewage Treatment 1. Primary Treatment (Physical Process)
Wastewater or sewage treatment is a multistep process: 1. Primary Treatment (Physical Process) Removal of large objects using grates and screens Settling to remove suspended solids (primary sludge) flocculating chemicals are added to enhance sedimentation

95 Sewage Treatment Secondary Treatment (Microbial Process)
Supernatant or primary effluent contains high levels of dissolved organic load (Biological Oxygen Demand) Aeration to stimulate aerobic degradation activated sludge reactor trickling filter reactor bacteria degrade organic carbon to CO2

96 Anaerobic Digestion of Sludge
Sludges from the primary and secondary treatment settling tanks are pumped into an anaerobic digester Sludges contain cellulose, proteins, lipid and other insoluble polymers Anaerobic bacteria digest the sludge to methane and carbon dioxide

97 Sewage Treatment Pathogen Removal by Activated Sludge
More than 90% of E.coli. and Salmonella are destroyed Bacteria are removed by inactivation, grazing by ciliated protozoa, and adsorption to sludge solids Viruses are removed mainly by adsorption process

98 Sewage Treatment Tertiary Treatment (Physicochemical Process)
Precipitation Filtration Chlorination Treated water is discharged to waterways Used for irrigation Recycled into drinking water expensive process, sharply reduces inorganic nutrients (PO4, NO3)

99 Reusing Wastewater Currently, treated wastewater, no matter how “clean” cannot be directly mixed with treated raw water and supplied as potable (from Latin potare = “to drink”) water (most places) However, if a dual plumbing system is available, wastewater can be piped into facilities for specific, approved uses for which non-potable water is adequate (process water, irrigation, sanitary use, etc.) Dual plumbing systems in America are colored purple to distinguish pipes, valves, taps, etc. from potable ones (e.g. Las Positas CC and the adjacent industrial park has this) mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

100 Indirect Use of Wastewater
Increasingly, treated wastewater is being used in Aquifer Recovery and Storage projects, used to recharge and protect groundwater that will ultimately be used for potable supplies. In Israel and the Netherlands, treated wastewater is allowed to percolate into and filter through deep sand dunes or permeable sandstone rocks to deep aquifers and is pumped out below and sent to raw water treatment plants. In California, many plans exist for recharging groundwater basins with wastewater (Zone 7, Orange County, etc.) as long as the groundwater has adequate residence times. Treated wastewater is frequently used as sources of saline intrusion barrier water. mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

101 Wastewater Virtual Tours
The State of South Dakota has a useful generic wastewater treatment plant tour on the web: The City of Camarillo, CA has a nice and clear virtual tour of their secondary treatment plant: mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

102 Water Legislation Types and Sources of Pollution
Pollution of Streams and Lakes Ocean Pollution Groundwater Pollution Drinking Water Quality Waste Water Treatment Water Legislation

103 Water Quality Standards
In most countries, water quality standards have gradually emerged and are still evolving for different water uses Standards are a function of our ability to detect and remove contaminants our understanding and/or fear of their actual or possible impacts mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

104 U.S. Water Quality Standards
The EPA have recorded at least 700 contaminants that have been found in municipal drinking water supplies around the country, many of which are harmful to humans The EPA currently requires the monitoring and reporting of some 83 variables and have set maximum contaminant levels for each (MCLS). This will likely increase soon mlee/geog4350/4350c4f01.ppt

105 Legal Attempts to Control Water Pollution
Clean Water Act 1977, now a state-federal partnership The Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act 1987 Federal Water Pollution Control Act 1972 amended to create: Safe Drinking Water Act, 1974, amended 1996 London Dumping Convention (1975) is the international treaty regulating disposal of wastes generated by normal operation of vessels MARPOL 73/78 is implemented in the U.S. by the Act to Prevent Pollution from Ships, under the lead of the U.S. Coast Guard The Water Quality Act (State of California) :Under the Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act (Porter-Cologne), the State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) has the ultimate authority over State water rights and water quality policy. Porter-Cologne also establishes nine Regional Water Quality Control Boards (Regional Boards) to oversee water quality on a day-to-day basis at the local/regional level. Regional Boards engage in a number of water quality functions in their respective regions. One of the most important is preparing and periodically updating Basin Plans,(water quality control plans). Each Basin Plan establishes: 1) beneficial uses of water designated for each water body to be protected; 2) water quality standards, known as water quality objectives, for both surface water and groundwater; and 3) actions necessary to maintain these standards in order to control non-point and point sources of pollution to the State's waters. The Federal Act established the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States. It gave EPA the authority to implement pollution control programs such as setting wastewater standards for industry. The Clean Water Act also continued requirements to set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters. The Act made it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained under its provisions. It also funded the construction of sewage treatment plants under the construction grants program and recognized the need for planning to address the critical problems posed by nonpoint source pollution. Safe drinking water act aims to ensure that drinking water is safe from the source to the tap: sets national standards for drinking water, sets enforceable maximum contaminant levels. This convention was established to control pollution of the sea by dumping of wastes which could create hazards to human health or to harm living resources and ocean life, to damage amenities, and to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea. It also encourages regional agreements supplementary to the Convention.It contains three Annexes: dumping of matter listed in Annex I is prohibited; dumping of matter listed in Annex II is allowable only by special permit; dumping of matter listed in annex III is allowable only by general permit. It calls on Parties "to promote measures to prevent pollution by hydrocarbons, other matter transported other than for dumping, wastes generated during operation of ships etc., radioactive pollutants and matter originating from exploration of the sea bed."The Convention was adopted on 29 December 1972 in London, Mexico City, Moscow and Washington, D.C., and entered into force on 30 August 1975 161 countries are parties as of December regulates carrying of oil, noxious liquids in the hold of ships, hazardous substances, sewage, and garbage from ships, air emissions from ships. Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

106 Clean Water Act The Clean Water Act is a 1977 amendment to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 Set the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants in the US The law gave EPA the authority to set water quality standards for industry and for all contaminants in surface waters The CWA makes it unlawful for any person to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unless a permit (NPDES) is obtained The amounts and types of pollutants than can be discharged or allowed to run in to waters from watersheds are regulated Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta

107 Safe Drinking Water Act
The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) was established to protect the quality of drinking water in the U.S This law focuses on all waters actually or potentially designed for drinking use, whether from above ground or underground sources Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta

108 Water Quality Act 1987 Approved 4/2/1987
Focuses on the storm water discharge caused by industry (power plants), construction, landfills, mining/oil and gas, landfills, transportation

109 Great Lakes Compact – 10/3/2008
Prohibits large scale diversions of an Great Lakes water – no one can take water fr GL except those states that border on the GL. Signed off by Pres.George Bush

110 Great Lakes Protection Act S-147
Background facts: Detroit, MI dumped 31 billion gal sewage into GL 3,000 days worth of closings or advisories-must limit sewer overflow Bipartisan action to approve this act—not yet approved! (Senators Kirk and Durbin/Congressmen Lipinski & Dold) “Act” states: there shall be no sewage dumping into GL Consequence: $100,000/day/violation Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta Environmental Science ENSC Pollution in the Bay-Delta

111 Current Law Regulating Ocean Dumping
The only substance that is illegal to dump anywhere in the ocean is plastic Freshwater%20and%20ocean%20Pollution.ppt

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