2Contingency TheoriesFocus on which leadership styles are most effective under which conditions1. Fiedler’s LPC theoryLeader traits & situational aspects are imptTrait of most importance is your assessment of your Least Preferred Coworker (LPC)Evaluate that personal favorably/unfavorably?
3Is this viewed as a trait or state? Low LPC = don’t like the person and evaluate them negatively (concern with what?)High LPC = don’t like the person, but can see positive aspects (concern with what?)Is this viewed as a trait or state?Effectiveness of each LPC style depends on:Leader-member relationsDegree of task structureLeader’s position power
4Fiedler’s LPC (cont.) Low LPC most effective when? High LPC most effective when?
5Applying LPC theory Match leader to situation; practical Evaluation of theory –Conclusions about leader effectiveness derived from many studiesCriticisms?
6Normative Decision Theory (Vroom & Yago) Another contingency theory, focused on styles of participative decision makingPrescriptive theory indicating which of 5 styles a leader should adopt based on decision treeAutocratic (2 types)Consultative (2 types)Group decision (1 type)
7Normative Decision Model Decision StyleaDefinitionAILeader makes the decision aloneAIILeader asks for information from team members but makes the decision alone. Team members may or may not be informed what the situation is.CILeader shares situation with each team member and asks for information and evaluation. Team members do not meet as a team, and the leader alone makes the decision.CIILeader and team members meet as a team to discuss the situation, but the leader makes the decision.GLeader and team members meet as a team to discuss the situation, and the team makes the decision.aA = autocratic C = consultative G = groupSources: V. H. Vroom and P. W. Yetton, Leadership and Decision-Making (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973); V. H. Vroom and A. G. Jago, The New Leadership: Managing Participation in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988).Adapted from Exhibit 11.6: Normative Decision-Making Model: Decision-Making Styles
8Normative Decision Theory (cont.) Follow decision tree, questions related to quality of decision needed and acceptance of decisionEvaluation of theory?
9Self-LeadershipIdea that there are substitutes for leadership, may not need leader position anymoreWhat could substitute?How well do these variables predict important outcomes?
10Substitutes for Leadership Ability, experience, trainingIntrinsically satisfying taskSubstitutes for leadershipProfessional orientationAbility, experience, trainingSubstitutes for LeadershipProfessional orientationAdvisory or staff supportIntrinsically satisfying taskAdvisory or staff supportDirect feedback from the taskCohesive work group (with positive performance norms)Cohesive work group (with positive performance normsDirect feedback from the taskAdapted from Exhibit 11.8: Examples of Possible Substitutes for Leadership
11Hogan & Kaiser (2005) article ‘Bright side’ and ‘Dark side’ of personality:Bright: initial impressions, best social performance (interview)Dark: let guard down (who actually comes to work)Difficulty with identifying these tendencies?‘Troubador’ and ‘Academic” research on leadership:Troubador –Academic –
12(cont.) Leader Effectiveness: They define leadership as the ability to build/maintain a group that performs well relative to competition.How would they prefer to evaluate leaders?Any focus on leader emergence?Leader competencies can be explained by their model (Table 1 in article)
13H & K’s Model 4 competencies: 1)2)3)4)Developmental model (in above order); hierarchy of increasing trainabilityDoes leadership matter?Affects culture of top mgmt team business outcomesBest predictor of employee satisfaction?
14(cont.) Managerial incompetence: Poor interpersonal skillsUnable to get work doneUnable to build a teamUnable to transition after promotionUsing DSM-IV to examine failures – 3 points1)2)3)