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Point of Contact :Doug Ingerson Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 Bldg.

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Presentation on theme: "Point of Contact :Doug Ingerson Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 Bldg."— Presentation transcript:

1 Point of Contact :Doug Ingerson Department of Transportation Federal Aviation Administration WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 Bldg 205 Atlantic City Int'l Airport, NJ USA tel: fax: web page:www.fire.tc.faa.gov Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal Engine Nacelle Halon Replacement

2 Slide #2 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal PRESENTATION CONTENTS  OVERVIEW OF THE EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY  EXAMPLE OF MASS EQUIVALENCE  EXAMPLE OF GAS CONCENTRATION EQUIVALENCE  RESULTS TO DATE  CONCLUSION

3 Slide #3 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY - OVERVIEW EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY ~ OVERVIEW ~

4 Slide #4 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY - OVERVIEW  TESTING OCCURS IN A FIXTURE CONTAINING SALIENT FEATURES OF THE ENGINE NACELLE ENVIRONMENT  THE EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY IS TWO-PART  ESTABLISH A MASS EQUIVALENCE BETWEEN AGENTS BASED ON FIRE EXTINCTION PERFORMANCE  A HALON 1301 (H1301) BENCHMARK IS ESTABLISHED  A QUANTITY OF A REPLACEMENT CANDIDATE QUANTITY IS FOUND THAT MEETS OR EXCEEDS THE H1301 BENCHMARK  ESTABLISH A CONCENTRATION EQUIVALENCE BASED ON AGENT DISTRIBUTION BEHAVIOR OF THE MASS EQUIVALENT  GAS ANALYSIS IS USED TO CAPTURE PERFORMANCE  TIES BACK TO FIRE EXTINCTION PERFORMANCE  PROCESS IS REPEATED IN 4 ITERATIONS TO FIND THE LARGEST EQUIVALENT CONCENTRATION (2 ventilation conditions x 2 fire threats)

5 Slide #5 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY - TEST FIXTURE

6 Slide #6 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY - TEST SECTION STA 502 AIRFLOW FWD UP TEST SECTION DIMENSIONS 48 INCH (1.22 m) OD SHELL 24 INCH (0.61 m) OD CORE ~ FEET (3.12 m) LONG

7 Slide #7 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY - TEST SECTION 24 +/- 1 inches (typical) (61 +/- 2.5 cm) ~ 123 Inches (3.12 m)

8 Slide #8 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – MASS EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY, PART I ~ MASS EQUIVALENCE ~

9 Slide #9 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – MASS  PROCESS  SELECT VENTILATION PROFILE  UTILIZE APPROPRIATE H1301 CERTIFICATION INSTALLATION  ESTABLISH H1301 BENCHMARK  SEARCH, FIND, & DEMONSTRATE EQUIVALENT BEHAVIOR WITH THE REPLACEMENT CANDIDATE

10 Slide #10 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – MASS  TEST FIXTURE VENTILATION IS SET TO 1 OF 2 POINTS  WANT TO SPAN AND OSERVE BEHAVIOR  HIGH VENTILATION (HiVent)  °F ( °C)  LOW VENTILATION (LoVent)  °F ( °C)  H1301 CERTIFICATION IS KNOWN FOR BOTH CASES  AGENT IS STORED AT 100°F (38°C)  AGENT DISCHARGE IS  1 SECOND  H1301 BENCHMARK (FIRE TESTING) IS ACCOMPLISHED WITH THE APPLICABLE CERTIFICATION PROFILE  H1301 DISTRIBUTION IS REASONABLY SYMMETRIC  DISCHARGE IS NOT DIRECTED AT THE FIRE THREAT  MINIMUM DISTANCE OF 5 FT (1.52 m) SEPARATES AGENT INJECTION AND THE FLAME FRONTS

11 Slide #11 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY – SAMPLING PROBE LOCATIONS, SPRAY REGION OF FLAME DURING FIRE TEST FWD UP RIGHT 3:00 UP 12:00 STA 502 STA DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEET UNLESS NOTED OTHERWISE LOOKING FWD

12 Slide #12 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY – SAMPLING PROBE LOCATIONS, POOL REGION OF FLAME DURING FIRE TEST FWD UP RIGHT 3:00 UP 12:00 STA 502 STA DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEET UNLESS NOTED OTHERWISE LOOKING FWD

13 Slide #13 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY – TYPICAL H1301 CERTIFICATION GRAPH, HiVent ( °C)

14 Slide #14 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY – TYPICAL H1301 CERTIFICATION GRAPH, LoVent ( °C)

15 Slide #15 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – MASS  DEFINING THE H1301 BENCHMARK  DETERMINED FOR EACH EQUIVALENCE ITERATION  POOL FIRE THREAT – JP8   220 IN^2 x 0.5IN DEEP 0.14 m^2 x 1.27 cm)  ELECTRICAL ARC REMAINS ON DURING AGENT INJECTION  SPRAY FIRE THREAT – JP8, LUBRICANT OR HYDRAULIC FLUID   0.25 GPM 0.95 LPM)  FUEL SPRAY & ELECTRICAL ARC REMAIN ON DURING AGENT INJECTION  FUEL SPRAY STRIKES HOT SURFACE DURING AGENT INJECTION  RESULT FROM 1 FIRE TEST = REIGNITION TIME DELAY (RTD)  RTD = time (FIRE EXTINCTION) – time (FIRE REIGNITION)  RTD IS ASSESSED FROM VIDEO RECORD OF EACH FIRE TEST  H1301 BENCHMARK = AVERAGED RTDs FROM 5 REPEATED FIRE TESTS = RTD_ave (H1301)

16 Slide #16 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY - SPRAY FIRE ZONE AIRFLOW FWD UP FUEL NOZZLES 2” (5.1 cm) TALL FLAME STABILIZATION RIB TUBE ARRAY CORE  STA 512 STA 502 ELECTRICAL ARC

17 Slide #17 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY – SPRAY FIRE VIDEO CLIP (04914_14, Halon 1301,HiVent OIL SPRAY)

18 Slide #18 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal IMAGERY - POOL FIRE ZONE STA 503 FWD UP AIRFLOW (5.1cm) (10.2cm) (1.27 cm)

19 Slide #19 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – MASS  MASS EQUIVALENCE FOR A REPLACEMENT CANDIDATE  COMPARISON BASIS : AVERAGE RTD OF 5 REPEATED TESTS  EQUIVALENCE DEFINED AS : RTD_ave (H1301)  RTD_ave (EQUIVALENT MASS)  IF A SPRAY FIRE THREAT, USE EQUIVALENT MASS AND VERIFY SUCCESS AGAINST OTHER FUELS  HiVent VERIFICATION – LUBRICANT & HYDRAULIC FLUID  LoVent VERIFICATION – JP8  REPEAT 3 TESTS FOR EACH FUEL  SUCCESS DEFINED AS : RTD_ave (EQUIVALENT MASS)  RTD_ave (VERIFICATION)

20 Slide #20 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – CONCENTRATION EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY, PART II ~ CONCENTRATION EQUIVALENCE ~

21 Slide #21 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – CONCENTRATION  TREATING THE VOLUMETRIC GAS CONCENTRATION AS THE PAREMETER FOR EQUIVALENCE (NOT CITING ANY MASS EQUIVALENCE!!)  REPLACEMENT CANDIDATE IS DELIVERED THROUGH NON-OPTIMIZED PLUMBING  SOME NON-OPTIMIZED QUANTITY OF THE REPLACEMENT CANDIDATE WILL STILL ACHIEVE PARITY WITH H1301 BENCHMARK  CONCENTRATION EQUIVALENCE EVALUATED AT THE FLAME FRONT ONLY (2 CHANNELS PER TEST)!!  EQUIVALENT GAS CONCENTRATION IS BASED ON :  CAPTURED GAS ANALYSIS DATA  FIRE EXTINCTION BEHAVIOR

22 Slide #22 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – CONCENTRATION  PROCESS  CAPTURE GAS DISTRIBUTION OF THE EQUIVALENT MASS WITH 3 REPEATED TESTS  COLLECT THE 2 FLAME FRONT CURVES FOR EACH TEST  TRANSFORM FLAME FRONT, GAS CONCENTRATION CURVES  CURVES ARE TYPICALLY EXPONENTIAL GROWTH/DECAY  TRANSFORM EACH CURVE TO “CONCENTRATION vs.  CREATE A SINGLE DATA POOL OF ALL POINTS FROM THE TRANSFORMED CURVES  MODEL THE DATA POOL WITH HIGHEST-ORDER POLYNOMIAL, BEST-FIT FUNCTION  RECALL AVERAGE RTD FROM REPLACEMENT CANDIDATE  USE AVERAGE RTD OF THE EQUIVALENT MASS IN THE BEST-FIT FUNCTION TO CALCULATE EQUIVALENT CONCENTRATION

23 Slide #23 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – PROCEDURAL FLOW CHART EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY ~ FLOW CHART ~

24 Slide #24 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – PROCEDURAL FLOW CHART DETERMINE “CERTIFICATION” CAPTURE THE CONCENTRATION PROFILE OF THE MASS EQUIVALENT TRANSFORM THE CONCENTRATION PROFILE OF THE MASS EQUIVALENT ARE ALL 4 ITERATIONS EVALUATED ? NO YES FIND MASS EQUIVALENT FOR REPLACEMENT CANDIDATE ~ START ~ SELECT TEST CONFIGURATION ESTABLISH BENCHMARK FOR HALON 1301 CERTIFICATION IS TEST CONFIGURATION A POOL FIRE ? NO YES VERIFY MASS EQUIVALENT IS ACCEPTABLE AGAINST OTHER FUELS IS FUEL VERIFICATION ACCEPTABLE ? NO YES CHANGE FUEL TO WORST CASE DETERMINE THE EQUIVALENT CONCENTRATION ~ STOP ~ END THE PROCESS FIRE TESTING GAS ANALYSIS TESTING

25 Slide #25 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – EXAMPLE EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY ~ EXAMPLE ~

26 Slide #26 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – EXAMPLE, MASS  MASS EQUIVALENCE EXAMPLE (actual data)  EQUIVALENCE ITERATION = HiVent JP8 SPRAY FIRE  H1301 BENCHMARK = RTD_ave (H1301) = 1.39 SECONDS  REPLACEMENT CANDIDATE WORK WITH HFC-125  EQUIVALENT MASS = 8.0 LBF (3.7 kg) HFC-125

27 Slide #27 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – EXAMPLE, CONCENTRATION  EQUIVALENT CONCENTRATION EXAMPLE  THIS EXAMPLE IS BASED UPON DATA FOR THE DISTRIBUTION OF 8.0 LBF (3.7 kg) HFC-125  RESTRICT DATA REVIEW TO THE 2 ANALYZER CHANNELS LOCATED AT THE SPRAY FLAME FRONT  CALCULATION FOLLOWS IN GRAPHICAL FORMAT  FOR SIMPLICITY IN THIS EXAMPLE :  ONE PAIR OF ANALYZER TRACES ARE SHOWN (SINGLE TEST)  DUE TO THE REDUCED SIZE OF THE DATA POOL, THE CALCULATION FOR THIS EXAMPLE IS NOT THE REPORTED EQUIVALENT CONCENTRATION  PROTOCOL REQUIRES REPEATING 3 GAS DISTRIBUTION TESTS TO PRODUCE THE DATA POOL TO MAKE THIS CALCULATION

28 Slide #28 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – EXAMPLE, CONCENTRATION

29 Slide #29 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY – EXAMPLE, CONCENTRATION ILLUSTRATION ONLY ~ EQUIVALENCE NOT VALID ~

30 Slide #30 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal RESULTS TO DATE

31 Slide #31 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal RESULTS TO DATE - TABULAR Agent Ventilation configuration Fire Threat Equivalent Concentration (%v/v) HFC-125 high JP8 spray16.9 (17.5*) JP8 pool9.4 (7.6*) low OIL spray15.8 (16.4*) (a) JP8 pool8.3 (8.1*) CF3I high JP8 spray5.8 JP8 poolincomplete low OIL spray7.2 (a, b) JP8 poolincomplete (a) Bracketing method used to find mass equivalent (b) Partial result, JP8 verification not completed as of June 2004 * Corrected values presented verbally during the presentation at the Conference; the corrected values reflect the interpretation of the equivalence data as of October 2004; the CF3I data reported here has not undergone the same secondary review

32 Slide #32 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal CONCLUSION SUMMARY/STATUS

33 Slide #33 Federal Aviation Administration ~ WJ Hughes Technical Center Fire Safety Branch, AAR-440 ~ Atlantic City Int’l Airport, NJ USA Cabin Safety Conference 17November2004Lisbon, Portugal CONCLUSORY STATEMENTS  FOLLOW-ON “CHECK” TESTS WITH HFC-125  REMAINING CF3I EQUIVALENCE ITERATIONS WILL FOLLOW  UPON COMPLETING CF3I ITERATIONS, PROJECT CONCLUDES


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