Presentation on theme: "Postwar to 1960: Domestic Affairs"— Presentation transcript:
1Postwar to 1960: Domestic Affairs Today’s episode:Three Events Get the Civil Rights Ball RollingLT 5:Voices of Dissent
2Question Answer Relationship Strategy (QAR) A way to help people realize that the answers they seek are related to the type of question being asked.Encourages people to base the way they search for answers on the type of question being asked.Emphasizes understanding where the answer will come from.
3Question-Answer Relationships (QAR) Four types of questionsIn the text1. Right there2. Pulling it together3.Author and MeIn your mind4. On My Own
4Four types of questions In the text In your mind∙ Right there ∙ Author and me ∙ On my ownAnswer’s in one spot Answer requires text and Can answer w/out thebackground info text, but text will∙ Pulling it together impact answerAnswer’s in multiple spots
5-Look for important info What should you do for each type of question?RIGHT THERE-Reread-Scan-Look for key wordsPULLING IT TOGETHER-Skim or reread-Look for important info-SummarizeAUTHOR AND ME-Think about what you already know and what the author saysON MY OWN-Think about what you already know-Think about what you’ve read before-Make connections
6DiscussWould you face harassment and violence to go to a much better school? Explain your answer.
7For discussion…How much interaction is there between races in Quakertown? In Quakertown High School?Fact: in Pennsylvania, segregation in public schools was declared illegal in 1881When was it declared illegal on a national level?November 2000, Alabama became the last state to overturn a law banning interracial marriage.Many in South still think it should be banned:Feb 2013: Mississippi officially ratifies 13th Amendment - Mississippi was a holdout; at the time state lawmakers were upset that they had not been compensated for the value of freed slaves. Mississippi ratified the amendment in 1995, but because the state never officially notified the US Archivist, the ratification was not official
8Race RefresherJim Crow laws – state laws that legalized segregation in the SouthSegregation – separate but equal public facilities (things that serve a particular function, e.g. schools, bathrooms, etc.)
9Why the civil rights movement starts growing after WWII Good postwar economy and new wealth means: economic progress for blacks doesn’t have to mean less $ for whites, so…Large # of blacks move north leading them to: gain political power (why?) to push politicians for desegregation in the SouthAmerica’s emphasis on importance of freedom during Cold War: goes against segregationRacism could lead Africa and Asia to support Soviets instead, so…2. Large # of blacks move north for new industrial jobs
10Three events will start the civil rights movement… Start reading assignment here
12TV also propels the civil rights movement [In the 1950s and 1960s] "the race problem entered their living rooms. Tens of millions nightly watched the drama of the Negro Revolution. The growing majority of Americans favoring racial equality and justice had those sentiments reinforced by TV shots of snarling dogs attacking black demonstrators, rowdy white hoods molesting young blacks patiently waiting to be served at a lunch counter, and hate- filled white faces in a frenzy because of the [nerve] of little black children entering a previously all-white school”Howard Sitkoff, "The Preconditions for Racial Change"
13Postwar to 1960: Domestic Affairs Today’s episode:Civil Rights BeginsLT 5:Voices of Dissent
14Warm-Up: Discuss Using Notes Define Jim Crow laws and segregationExplain how each of the following help to get the civil rights movement going:The postwar economy and increasing wealthMovement of blacks to the northThe Cold War
15Continue the guided reading handout civil rightsContinue the guided reading handout
16-Look for important info What should you do for each type of question?RIGHT THERE-Reread-Scan-Look for key wordsPULLING IT TOGETHER-Skim or reread-Look for important info-SummarizeAUTHOR AND ME-Think about what you already know and what the author saysON MY OWN-Think about what you already know-Think about what you’ve read before-Make connections
17After you finish the handout Using pp of your textbook, create newspaper headlines summarizing what’s happening with each of the following groups after WWII:HispanicsAsiansAmerican IndiansThe rural poorUrban communities
18Warm-UpUsing your notes, alternate explaining the three reasons the civil rights movement starts growing after WWII with the person next to you.Each person should explain each reason oncePerson 1 explains: # # #2Person 2 explains: # # #3If one person doesn’t know how to explain a reason, then the partner should help
19Why the civil rights movement starts growing after WWII Good postwar economy and new wealth means economic progress for blacks doesn’t have to mean less $ for whites, so:Large # of blacks move north leading them to gain political power to push politicians for desegregation in the SouthAmerica’s emphasis on importance of freedom during Cold War goes against segregationRacism could lead Africa and Asia to support Soviets instead, so:2. Large # of blacks move north for new industrial jobs
20Postwar to 1960: Domestic Affairs Today’s episode:Civil Rights BeginsLT 5:Voices of Dissent
21Pleasantville paper due tomorrow Typed, double-spaced
22Warm-Up: Discuss WITHOUT Your Notes Define Jim Crow laws and segregationExplain how each of the following helps the civil rights movementPostwar economyBlacks moving northCold War
23Big Ideas for the Civil Rights Unit When faced with seemingly irreconcilable conflict within a group, should parties choose to separate or commit to working towards peaceful coexistence? Reconcile: to settleIrreconcilable: cannot be settled (divorce citing irreconcilable differences)What is a more effective way of achieving social change in society: nonviolent action or showing willingness to use violence?When, if ever, should the groups give up on peaceful coexistence? (Examples of seemingly irreconcilable conflict/differences? Black/white, Dems/Reps)
25Brown v. Board of Education Pulling it together: When was the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education given and what did it do?May 17, 1954; declared racial segregation illegal in public schoolsAuthor and me: Use the context to explain what the authors mean when they say African Americans were skeptical about Brown because for them there has been a “difference between the law in books and the law in action”?Af-Ams doubted Brown would have impact because laws aren’t always followed
26Showdown in Little Rock 3. Pulling it together: How did the Brown decision affect school desegregation in the South? Desegregation moved slowly. By end of school year, vast [great] majority of southern school systems remain segregated
27Percent of black students attending integrated (desegregated) schools in the South
28Showdown in Little Rock 4. Pulling it together: Who are the Little Rock Nine? The nine African American students admitted to all-white Central High in Little Rock, Arkansas, September 1957
29Little Rock Nine are like the Jackie Robinson of Southern public schools
30Showdown in Little Rock 5. Pulling-it-together: What events led up to the Little Rock Nine being able to enter their school?Governor Faubus: orders Arkansas National Guard to keep them out to protect the school. Faubus removes Nat’l Guard under court order leading to white mob riot.Pres. Eisenhower: sends 1,000 federal troops to protect the 9How long were the students prevented from entering the school? 3 weeksRight there: After the first school year, what did Governor Faubus do to resist desegregation?Closed all Little Rock public schools, creates all-white private school system
34Little Rock Nine(3:42)Marquette University “Little Rock Nine” clip
35President Eisenhower Upholds the Brown Decision – Why? “At a time when we face grave situations abroad because of the hatred that communism bears toward a system of government based on human rights, it would be difficult to exaggerate the harm that is being done to the prestige and influence, and indeed to the safety, of our nation and the world. Our enemies are gloating over this incident and using it everywhere to misrepresent our whole nation. We are portrayed as a violator of those standards of conduct which the peoples of the world united to proclaim in the Charter of the United Nations. There they affirmed ‘faith in fundamental human rights’ and ‘in the dignity and worth of the human person’ and they did so ‘without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion.’ [If resistance to the Brown decision ends]…Thus will be restored the image of America and of all its parts as one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”It soon became clear to American leaders that if they were to win the support of African and Asian peoples and nations for America's Cold War struggle against communism, they would have to do something about America's negative image in the world. How could American leaders claim that the United States stood for freedom, justice, rights, and equality and yet allow Blacks to be crushed by brutal white violence? This contradiction became even more apparent when African ambassadors to the United States were harassed by Southern white policemen thinking they were not obeying the Jim Crow rules that all Blacks should obey. You can imagine that harassing or even beating up a foreign ambassador could lead to an embarrassing international incident for the United States. In addition, Soviet communist leaders used Jim Crow and white racism to try to undermine the American position as the leader of the free world. The Soviets charged that African and Asian peoples should not align themselves with the United States because it was racist. It was this increasing Cold War pressure that led President from Truman to Johnson to begin to use the power of the federal government to end Jim Crow and racial inequality in America.
37my public school education was my primary exposure to a desegregated community. in school we all hung out together: blacks, whites, hispanic, asian. of course, segregation within the school still exists. you hang out with people from your neighborhood primarily. and neighborhoods of little rock are segregated. but public school was that one opportunity for many (like myself) to spend time with kids from another part of town.i think the most important lesson to be drawn from today's situation is that public school is one of the few ways in which the many social classes of little rock interact. not only do whites, blacks, and others intermingle in school, but the very act of going to this part of little rock is an act of crossing invisible borders for many.
38The Montgomery Bus Boycott boycott: stop buying or using something as a way of forcing change Describe a situation where YOU might choose to boycott something and explain why to the person closest to you
39The Montgomery Bus Boycott 7. Right there: In addition to fighting segregation in schools, what did the NAACP seek to do?The practice of forcing African American citizens to ride in back of city buses8. Right there: How did Rosa Parks give the NAACP its opportunity on December 1, 1955?Refused to give up bus seat to white passenger and was arrested
41The Montgomery Bus Boycott 9. Pulling it together: What happened in response to Parks’s arrest and conviction?Many of the 50,000 Af-Ams boycotted the bus system in protest10.Pulling it together: Who was the spokesperson of the boycott and how did he urge the black community to respond to the white protesters trying to break the boycott?Martin Luther King, Jr.; non-violence
43The Montgomery Bus Boycott 11. Pulling-it-together: How and when did the boycott come to an end? Supreme Court declared Montgomery and Alabama segregation laws unconstitutional in November Author and me: What did the Montgomery victory do? What impact do you think this might have on the civil rights movement? Marked a blow to racial discrimination and the fear of standing up to people in positions of power 13. Author and me: Why is the Civil Rights Act of 1957 important? Made it a federal crime to prevent qualified persons from voting
44The Montgomery Bus Boycott (4:58)“Mongtomery Bus Boycott” YouTube - Discovery Ed clip
45ClosureRank these three events in order of importance to the civil rights movement.Brown v. Board of Education (1954)Little Rock Nine (1957)Montgomery Bus Boycott ( )In groups of four, discuss and agree on a ranking for the entire group.
46Three events will start the civil rights movement… Start reading assignment here
47Postwar to 1960: Domestic Affairs Today’s episode:Three Events to Start the MovementLT 5:Voices of Dissent