2Bell Activity Your words are “archaeologist” and “artifact” This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly!Your words are “archaeologist” and “artifact”Find the word on your pink study guide and complete the following information for the word. Find the definition using a glossary.Use your own knowledge and experience to complete the rest of the definition.Keep your study guide out and also have your Paleo-Indian paper from yesterday out too.Where should your backpack be?How the Earth was Made
3Does your work look something like this? Word: archaeologistMy Understanding:Definition:Draw a picture of it:Sentence:Synonym/ Example:Antonym/Non-Example:
4Does your work look something like this? Word: archaeologistMy Understanding:Definition: a scientist who studiesDraw a picture of it:prehistoric (or historic) people and theircultureSentence: The archaeologist wasexcavating the site of an shelter used byPaleo-Indians.Synonym/ Example: anthropologistAntonym/Non-Example: biologist, chemist
5Does your work look something like this? word: artifactMy Understanding:Definition:Draw a picture of it:Sentence:Synonym/ Example:Antonym/Non-Example:
6Does your work look something like this? word: artifactMy Understanding:Definition: any handmade object fromDraw a picture of it:an earlier time (Any item resulting fromhuman activity.)Sentence: The artifacts were carefullymapped by the archaeologist before sheremoved them from the ground.Synonym/ Example: object; statue, toyAntonym/Non-Example: natural, not made by humans
7Bell Activity Review for the counties test! This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly!Review for the counties test!Just before the first bell rings, pick up the ipad that matches your box number and log into Canvas.Where should your backpack be?
8GoalsContent Objective: We will identify where the first Native Americans came from and what their lives were like when they came to Utah.Behavior – Work EthicLanguage Objective: We will practice identifying and making inferences (educated guesses) based on evidence.
9What do you infer…Yesterday, we learned that archaeologists can use artifacts to learn about the past.What do they do when the purpose of the object is not known?They make an inference. They infer (try to figure out) what the item might have been used for.This picture shows the same object from three different sides; front, back, and a side view.
10Archaeologists make inferences Just as we have to make inferences (guesses) about an artifact, we also have to make educated guesses about what life was like for the ancient Paleo-Indians.The Paleo-Indians appear to have been the first people to have lived in the Americas, including Utah.
11Questions an archaeologist asks… But who were the Paleo-Indians?Where did they come from?When did they arrive in the Americas?Were they the first people here?How did they get here?How did they live in this new, harsh environment?How did they find food?What did they eat?And so on…
12If you were a Paleo-Indian, how might you have come to the Americas?
13Theories About How People First Came to the Americas The first is the Land Bridge theory, also called Clovis first.(As we watch the video clip write the four key ideas of this theory.)184.108.40.206.
14Land BridgePeople came to the Americas by crossing Beringia, the land bridge that connected Asia and North America.1. Clovis points are found all across North America and are dated as being very old.2. Land bridge opens and people cross into Americas.3. Their technology allows them to hunt, and possibly kill off the megafauna.4. As they Ice Age ended, they populated moved into the lower continent. The timing of this fits with the age of Clovis points.
15Clovis PointsThese people made stone spear points that are called Clovis points after the town in New Mexico near where they were found.Sites date from around 13,000 Y.A.
17Land Bridge Pro-Land Bridge Most popular theory about how people came to the Americas.Many Clovis sites have been discovered all over North America.Anti-Land BridgeOlder sites that seem to predate the opening of the ice-free corridor.
18Sites that Claim to be Pre-Clovis 22. Meadowcroft Pennsylvania 13,500-17,500 years old Lanceolate point, blade-like flakes, and charred basketry.24. Cactus Hill Virginia 17,000-19,000 years old Lanceolate points, blades, and blade cores.25. Topper South Carolina 15,000-16,000 years old Possible stone tools found in dated deposits.
19Theories About How People First Came to the Americas The second is the boats from Asia theory.(As we watch the video clip write the four key ideas of this theory.)220.127.116.11.
20Boats from AsiaThis theory describes how people could have come to the Americas by using boats.1. People traveled by boat to the Americas.2. Evidence is suggesting that the coasts of the North America were capable of supporting life.3. Monte Verde seems to confirm pre-Clovis.4. DNA says they traveled rapidly to sites all across the Americas starting at least 20,000 years ago.
21Monte VerdeIt is believed that Monte Verde was occupied from 14,000 – 13,800 Y.A.The excavation found pieces of wooden poles and stakes were still tied with cords made of local grasses.A human footprint was also found.
23Asian Boat Theory Pro-Asian Boat Theory There was enough wildlife along the coast to support people.Monte Verde, a site which is far away from the land bridge.Anti-Asian Boat TheoryNo ancient boats have been discovered in North America, although they have been found in Asia.Questions about the dating of Monte Verde.It is not that much older than Clovis.
24If you were a Paleo-Indian, how might you have come to the Americas?
25Theories About How People First Came to the Americas The third is the boats from Europe theory.(As we watch the video clip write the four key ideas of this theory.)18.104.22.168.
26European Boat TheoryThis theory states that people came to the Americas by crossing the Atlantic Ocean.1. Solutrean points look like Clovis and are made with a similar technique.2. A Cactus Hill spear point seems to bridge the time gap between the two cultures.3. Modern Alaskans show that it is possible to cross the same type of environment as the existed in the Ice Age.4. Some DNA studies also seem to support this theory.
28European Boat Theory Pro-Atlantic Boat Theory. Similarities between Solutrean and Clovis Points.The Cactus Hill site may show a connection between Solutrean and Clovis points.Genetic studies.Some skull reconstructions.Anti-Atlantic Boat Theory.No boats have been found.Other characteristics of Solutrean culture, like art, have not been found in the Americas.A 3,000 to 5,000 year gap between the Solutrean period of France and Spain and the Clovis of the New World.
30Theories About How People First Came to the Americas Combined TheoryIs there a fourth possibility of how people could have come to the Americas? Let’s make some inferences that combine some of the ideas from each theory. Then let’s see if the video agrees with us.22.214.171.124.5.
31Paleo-Indian Migrations So what is the new theory combined theory of populating the Americas?1. Clovis tools are an American invention.2. People had lots of food sources, not just big game.3. Trade networks were used to trade goods and take people to new groups.4. They knew a lot about the land, and where they would need to go in the future.5. All of this suggests Clovis tech spread across an already established people, who arrived 20,000+ years ago.
32However they got here, people were present across the Americas. There is evidence that Paleo-Indians once lived around Lake Bonneville, and in the mountains & basins.Here are two important sites for understanding how Paleo-Indians and their descendents lived are here in Utah.
34Paleo-Indians in Utah Lived Food Culture *Paleo-Indians lived all over Utah, and North America, mostly near lakes and rivers.*They took shelter in caves and probably built houses of brush, twigs, sticks, etc. when they needed to. They may also have use leather tents like the ones found at Monte Verde.*They had a sparse (small) population, probably living in family groups (clans) of about people. They likely met other clans to trade, hold religious celebrations, and exchange member (marriage).*They were hunters and gatherers.*They could hunt megafauna, but mostly lived off of smaller animals.*They also gathered plants, nuts, and fruit from their environment.*They moved with the seasons to wherever food was plentiful, often caching tools (like Clovis points) for later use.*They created stone tools, like the Clovis spear points.* Other stone tools included awls for making clothes, stone knives, grass cutters, and more.*They probably made baskets, clothes, shoes, and other cultural items, but most of these were not preserved in the archaeological record.
35So how did they live here in Utah? Danger & Hogup Caves Danger Cave shows signs of being used by American Indians for 11,000 years.Hogup Cave also shows signs of habitation for around 9,000 yearsTragically, this cave has been destroyed by vandals.
36In the future…Utah was once thought to not have many Paleo-Indian sites.Work by archaeologists at USU, has found 57 potential Paleo-Indian sites in the Logan to Soda Springs, ID area.These sites may give us more insights into the Paleo-Indians.
37The Paleo-Indians adapt As the Ice Age ended, the megafauna went extinct.The climate in Utah and other places changed.The Paleo-Indians had to adapt to these changes.Their spear points show an example of adaptation.
38Over the course of thousands of years, the Paleo-Indians adapted to the many environments across the Americas.They gradually developed into the Archaic Indians, whose lifestyle was similar to the Paleo-Indians in some ways and different in others.Paleo-Indians lived in Utah from at least 12,000 years ago until around 7,000 years ago.Let’s compare the two groups.Adaptations
39Desert GatherersHistorians call the Archaic Indians in Utah the desert gatherers, because the land was so dry and arid.These people lived in Utah for over 6,000 years.Over time their culture became more and more complex.
40Increasing complexity We find many innovations in Archaic Indians sites.atlatlbasketswicki-upsMoving with the seasons to find food.Using more and more resources in their environment.Trading networks to get resources not available in their environment.
41AtlatlThe atlatl helped increase the distance and accuracy that ancient and modern hunters could achieve.This video shows how an atlatl is thrown and made.
43Archaic Indians in Utah LivedFoodCulture*They lived all across Utah, in many of the same places as the Paleo-Indians.*They also lived in clans, small family groups of people.*They built houses, called wicki-ups, and still used caves for shelter also.*They were hunters and gatherers.*The megafauna was extinct, so they hunted smaller animals that were much faster. As a result, they developed the atlatl, which could fly farther, faster and was more accurate than a heavy spear.*They hunted buffalo, deer as well as small animals like lizards, mice and even insects!*They gathered many plants in their environment, including pine nuts, berries, seeds, grasses, fruit, bulbs, etc.*They used the mano and metate to grind seeds and nuts.*We find a lot more cultural artifacts from the Archaic people because of the dry environment.*They made rock art and small figures out of twigs.*We find shoes, mats, nets, snares, traps, etc woven of fibers (yucca often was used).*
44Traveling Peoples Some of the Archaic Indians of Utah left over time. Others stayed and joined with new people coming from other areas.These new groups are called the Anasazi and the Fremont.1222
45Bell Activity Your words are “migration” and “adaptation” This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly!Your words are “migration” and “adaptation”Find the word on your pink study guide and complete the following information for the word.Find the definition using a glossary.Use your own knowledge and experience to complete the rest of the definition.Where should your backpack be?
46Does your work look something like this? Word: migrationMy Understanding:Definition:Draw a picture of it:Sentence:Synonym/ Example:Antonym/Non-Example:
47Does your work look something like this? Word: migrationMy Understanding:Definition: the mass movement ofDraw a picture of it:people (or animals) from one locality toanotherSentence: The Paleo-Indians migratedto the Americas sometime in the last20,000 years.Synonym/ Example: move, relocate; birdsAntonym/Non-Example: stay, remain
48Does your work look something like this? Word: adaptationMy Understanding:Definition:Draw a picture of it:Sentence:Synonym/ Example:Antonym/Non-Example:
49Does your work look something like this? Word: adaptationMy Understanding:Definition: changes by a species toDraw a picture of it:Improve its chances of survivalSentence: The Paleo-Indians had toadapt to a changing climate at the end ofIce Age, and learn to hunt new animals.Synonym/ Example: change, learnAntonym/Non-Example: unchanged