Presentation on theme: "History of Marine Science Part IV The Birth of Marine Science"— Presentation transcript:
1History of Marine Science Part IV The Birth of Marine Science
2The _______ Expedition The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean ("the Southern Seas") conducted by the United States Navy from 1838–1842
3Wilkes resultsThe Wilkes Expedition played a major role in development of 19th-century science, particularly in the growth of the U.S. scientific establishment280 islands (mostly in the Pacific Ocean) were explored, and over 800 miles of Oregon were mappedover 60,000 plant and bird specimens were collectedMany of the species and other items found by the expedition helped form the basis of collections at the Smithsonian Institution
4Science for Science’s sake Now more scientific related sea voyages were occurringWilkes Expedition was a great achievement but as you can see it was more land basedThe REAL Expedition for Sea Exploration was NEXT!
6Challenger’s Big Breakthroughs Found that Life is at the bottom of the seaStudied seawater chemistryCharted depths over much of the Atlantic ocean> 4,000 new species foundMeasured temperatures at all depthsStudied deep ocean currentsTook 19 years to publish all of their findingsLed by Scientist __________ __________
7First great oceanographic expedition, 1872-1875 JapanHawaiiBermudaTristan da CunhaNZ
16Follow the Leader Catalyst for other nations: Now everyone wanted to study the oceanNorway, Germany, France, Austria, USA, Italy andMonaco all followed with expeditions of their ownHere are some of the others ………
17USA: Albert Agassiz aboard the vessel Blake - Gulf Stream workUSA
18Monaco Prince Edward of Monaco aboard the Hirondelle II explored European watersUntil 1915MonacoHis Father Prince Albert established the first ______________School in 1900
27One significant German survey ship The Meteor crossed the Atlantic 14 times67,000 echo soundingsThe Meteor: The Meteor provided the first reliable measurement of ocean depths, continuous echo sounding and discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge – something that we will revisit later
28Because of World War I and the extensive use of ___________ in this war there were many “firsts” in this time period in the area of Oceanography
29World War 2 saw another leap forward – as detailed coastal charts, submarine conditions, sea conditions, etc…. needed to be knownAgain – either commerce or war proved invaluable to oceanography
30The Challenger was a(n) ________ Ship AmericanBritishGermanSpanish
31The Challenger was led by Prince AlbertWyville ThomsonMatthew MauryAlbert Agassiz
32Prince Albert Opened the first school of Oceanography in 1416187519011900
33Nasen went to the north pole to study Wind PatternsOcean currentsEskimosIce Movement
41Glomar Highlights ‘68-’83Took core samples of the Atlantic Ocean Sea Floor.The floor samples offered evidence for the plate tectonic theoryTotal distance penetrated below sea floor 325,548 mRetired in 1983
42Scripps FLIP VesselFLIP is a 335 ft. vessel, whose stern ballast tanks can be flooded to convert it into a 55 ft. stable platform for research.The way water circulates, how storm waves are formed, how seismic waves move, how heat is exchanged between the ocean and the atmosphere, and the sound made underwater by marine animals are just a few of the subjects studied using the amazing FLIP.
43FLIP: The World's Strangest Research Lab FLIP stands for Floating Instrument Platform: it is actually a huge specialized buoy. One of its creators described it as looking like a 355-foot long ( 108 m) baseball bat. If that isn't unusual enough, it really flips!Doors in the floor, portholes in the ceiling, tables bolted sideways to walls, stairs leading to nowhere! What kind of a research lab is this?
44Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES) drilled on the ocean floor at a depth of 27,000 ft. and went 1000 ft. into ocean floor sediments.
45Satellites1978 SEASAT satellite launched for measuring global surface temperature, bio-productivity, and wave heights.1990’s - Global Positioning Satellites were opened for public access.2000’s – a 10-year project, Census of Marine Life, will seek to identify marine life and preserve species.
46University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) has a fleet of academic research vessels, deep submersible and remote robotic vehicles.R.O.V’s are becoming the tool of choice
47Oceanographic Equipment NOAANOAAOceanographicEquipmentNOAAMarine Science is only lacking American science students. The U.S. is only 17th in the world in scientific literacy.
48Main PointsMiddens are refuse dumps found near beaches left by prehistoric man and give clues to man’s first interactions with the sea.The first Navigational tool was the Stick Chart used by the polynesians.The first School of Navigation was opened by “Prince Henry the Navigator” in 1416.Magellan first circumnavigated the globe in 1522
49Capitan James Cook’s many advances in Maritime travel include successful testing of the chronometer and a solution to problem of scurvy.Ben Franklin studied using the gulf stream to shorten travel time between US and Europe.Matthew Maury The Father of Marine Science publishes the first textbook on OceanographyThe HMS Challenger Expedition. Led by Wyville Thomson. The first scientific venture to study the Ocean and Marine Life Exclusively.
50Prince Albert of Monaco set up the first school of Oceanography in 1900. The Meteor a German ship uses Sonar to map out the Atlantic Ocean Floor and discovers the mid Atlantic RidgeThe Fram …Design to survive being frozen in ice….The first ship to cross the Northwest passage in Used to study polar ocean currents and brought the first explorers to the North PoleThe Meteor discovered the Mid Atlantic RidgeCommerce (Trade) and War have been the driving force behind most Marine Science advancements.