Presentation on theme: "History of Marine Science Part IV The Birth of Marine Science."— Presentation transcript:
History of Marine Science Part IV The Birth of Marine Science
The _______ Expedition The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean ("the Southern Seas") conducted by the United States Navy from 1838–1842
Wilkes results The Wilkes Expedition played a major role in development of 19th-century science, particularly in the growth of the U.S. scientific establishment 280 islands (mostly in the Pacific Ocean) were explored, and over 800 miles of Oregon were mapped over 60,000 plant and bird specimens were collected Many of the species and other items found by the expedition helped form the basis of collections at the Smithsonian Institution
Science for Sciences sake Now more scientific related sea voyages were occurring Wilkes Expedition was a great achievement but as you can see it was more land based The REAL Expedition for Sea Exploration was NEXT!
HMS___________ – Where it all began!!!!
Challengers Big Breakthroughs Found that Life is at the bottom of the sea Studied seawater chemistry Charted depths over much of the Atlantic ocean > 4,000 new species found Measured temperatures at all depths Studied deep ocean currents Took 19 years to publish all of their findings Led by Scientist __________ __________
First great oceanographic expedition, Bermuda Tristan da Cunha NZ Japan Hawaii
Detailed descriptions of events throughout the voyage...
Accurate drawings of marine organisms..
of all sizes….
Including microscopic marine plankton drawn while looking through a microscope..
And photographs! As well as Cannibals !!!!!
Catalyst for other nations: Now everyone wanted to study the ocean Norway, Germany, France, Austria, USA, Italy and Monaco all followed with expeditions of their own Here are some of the others ………
USA: Albert Agassiz aboard the vessel Blake - Gulf Stream work
Prince Edward of Monaco aboard the Hirondelle II explored European waters Until 1915 His Father Prince Albert established the first ______________ School in 1900
The Lab on the Ship.
Nansen Norwegian explorer, ocean scientist, and Humanitarian Ocean currents around polar seas Tricked his crew by Letting his boat get Stuck in the ice on Purpose!
The _________ Frozen in ice – 1893 –1896 for North Pole trek, deep ocean survey of the area
Fram frozen in the Arctic ice pack
Picture of Nansen during his time on Spitzbergen Left the Fram And trekked on foot trying To reach the North Pole A very dangerous expedition
Nasens Voyage Nasen leaves Fram for the north pole March 1895 Winters on island in a hut made of moss and ice living on polar bear meat and Walrus Blubber Arrive home on Aug 1896
But lets not forget The Fram OK – so Nansen was good, but the Fram – 1st ship through NW Passage in______, AND with Amundsen to Antarctica – was GREAT!
Fram Museum Fram in Ice The Crew
: The Meteor provided the first reliable measurement of ocean depths, continuous echo sounding and discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge – something that we will revisit later One significant German survey ship The Meteor crossed the Atlantic 14 times 67,000 echo soundings The Meteor
Because of World War I and the extensive use of ___________ in this war there were many firsts in this time period in the area of Oceanography
World War 2 saw another leap forward – as detailed coastal charts, submarine conditions, sea conditions, etc…. needed to be known Again – either commerce or war proved invaluable to oceanography
The Challenger was a(n) ________ Ship 1.American 2.British 3.German 4.Spanish
The Challenger was led by 1.Prince Albert 2.Wyville Thomson 3.Matthew Maury 4.Albert Agassiz
Prince Albert Opened the first school of Oceanography in
Nasen went to the north pole to study 1.Wind Patterns 2.Ocean currents 3.Eskimos 4.Ice Movement
Nasens boat was named the 1.Fram 2.Freud 3.Fraud 4.Flim
The Fram was an excellent boat because it was able to 1.Withstand wind. 2.Withstand cold. 3.Withstand being frozen in ice. 4.Withstand extreme heat.
The German ship the Meteor discovered the 1.Titanic 2.The Ocean Floor 3.The Mid Atlantic Ridge 4.Global Warming
The two driving forces behind advancement in Marine Science have been 1.Peace and Diplomacy 2.Warfare and Curiosity 3.Warfare and Trade 4.Curiosity and Trade
Glomar Highlights Took core samples of the Atlantic Ocean Sea Floor. The floor samples offered evidence for the plate tectonic theory Total distance penetrated below sea floor 325,548 m Retired in 1983
Scripps FLIP Vessel FLIP is a 335 ft. vessel, whose stern ballast tanks can be flooded to convert it into a 55 ft. stable platform for research. The way water circulates, how storm waves are formed, how seismic waves move, how heat is exchanged between the ocean and the atmosphere, and the sound made underwater by marine animals are just a few of the subjects studied using the amazing FLIP.
FLIP stands for Floating Instrument Platform: it is actually a huge specialized buoy. One of its creators described it as looking like a 355-foot long ( 108 m) baseball bat. If that isn't unusual enough, it really flips! Doors in the floor, portholes in the ceiling, tables bolted sideways to walls, stairs leading to nowhere! What kind of a research lab is this? FLIP: The World's Strangest Research Lab
Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES) drilled on the ocean floor at a depth of 27,000 ft. and went 1000 ft. into ocean floor sediments.
1978 SEASAT satellite launched for measuring global surface temperature, bio-productivity, and wave heights. 1990s - Global Positioning Satellites were opened for public access. 2000s – a 10-year project, Census of Marine Life, will seek to identify marine life and preserve species. Satellites
University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) has a fleet of academic research vessels, deep submersible and remote robotic vehicles. R.O.Vs are becoming the tool of choice
NOAA Oceanographic Equipment Marine Science is only lacking American science students. The U.S. is only 17th in the world in scientific literacy.
Main Points Middens are refuse dumps found near beaches left by prehistoric man and give clues to mans first interactions with the sea. The first Navigational tool was the Stick Chart used by the polynesians. The first School of Navigation was opened by Prince Henry the Navigator in Magellan first circumnavigated the globe in 1522
Capitan James Cooks many advances in Maritime travel include successful testing of the chronometer and a solution to problem of scurvy. Ben Franklin studied using the gulf stream to shorten travel time between US and Europe. Matthew Maury The Father of Marine Science publishes the first textbook on Oceanography The HMS Challenger Expedition. Led by Wyville Thomson. The first scientific venture to study the Ocean and Marine Life Exclusively.
Prince Albert of Monaco set up the first school of Oceanography in The Meteor a German ship uses Sonar to map out the Atlantic Ocean Floor and discovers the mid Atlantic Ridge The Fram …Design to survive being frozen in ice….The first ship to cross the Northwest passage in Used to study polar ocean currents and brought the first explorers to the North Pole The Meteor discovered the Mid Atlantic Ridge Commerce (Trade) and War have been the driving force behind most Marine Science advancements.