2KenningMetaphorical compounds words or phrases substituted for simple nounsExample: Whale’s home—oceanGiver of gold—king
3ArchetypeA pattern in literature that is found in a variety of works from different cultures throughout the ages. It can be a plot, a character, an image, or a setting, for example, association of death and rebirth with winter and spring is an archetype of many cultures.
4Epic PoemA long narrative poem on a serious subject (like good vs. evil) presented in an elevated or formal style.Traces the adventures of a hero whose actions consist of courageous and even superhuman deedsOften represent the ideals and values of a nation or raceTypically address universal issues, such as good vs. evil, life and death, sin and redemptionExample: Beowulf
5Epic HeroLarger than life figure who embodies ideals of nation or raceTake part in dangerous adventures and accomplish great deedsUndertake long, difficult journeysDisplay great courage and superhuman strength
6ToneAuthor’s attitude toward his subject, his characters, or his audienceExamples: Serious, sincere, cheerful, condescending, humorous, depressed, guilty, matter-of-fact
7Direct characterization When a writer directly states what a character is like.When a writer tells the reader what to make of a character.Example: James was a wonderful person. Everybody loved him.
8Indirect Characterization When a writer reveals information about a character and his personality through that character’s thoughts, words, and actions, along with how other characters respond to that character. A character is described, but it is left to the reader to decide what the description says about him or her.Example: James rescued a dog from a pile of rubble after an old barn collapsed. The dog follows him everywhere, now, even to the soup kitchen where James volunteers on the weekends.
9AlliterationRepetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words.Example: Savannah said that Simon sounded sad on Saturday.
10Similes Simile: Comparison using like or as Examples: He was as happy as a lark.The sea was as smooth as glass.She sang like an angel.
11MetaphorsComparison without using like or as. Describing one thing in terms of another.The snow was a clean white sheet.The children were black canvases.His legs were rubber.It’s raining cats and dogs.
12Proposals and Abstracts Purpose of a business abstract: To provide readers with a clear summary of the project, including the reasoning behind it (research) and how it will be carried outIncludes main point (thesis statement)Summary of researchPlan of action or intentConclusion
13Business Letters Purpose: To carry on formal business correspondence Examples: a cover letter, filing a formal complaint, propose a business endeavor, to introduce yourself to new clients, to define a problem and propose a solutionFirst step: Identify your audience and your purpose to determine how to write your letter
14Components of a Business Letter Sender’s AddressDateRecipient’s AddressSalutationFirst paragraph (Introduction)Friendly greetingState main point (but don’t go into detail yet)BodySupporting details to justify your purpose.Background information, statistics, first hand accounts.A few short paragraphs to support your reasoning.Closing ParagraphRestate your purpose and why it is importantIf employment is your goal, consider ending with contact informationThank the reader for his or her timeUse some closing like Sincerely, then leave a little space to sign your name. Type your name below (because handwritten signatures are often illegible
15FormatBlock format: Paragraphs are NOT indented, there is a space between them instead.FormatTimes New Roman 12 pt fontSingle spacedText flush leftOne inch marginsProofread (it’s a good idea to wait a day between writing and sending a letter so you have time to look it over and make sure everything is correct.)
16Job Interviews Arrive early Turn off cell phone, spit out gum Dress appropriatelyGreet the interviewer with a (firm) handshake and a smile.Answer questions thoughtfullyAvoid saying you don’t know the answer to a question, instead, ask them to repeat the question or provide clarification, or for a moment to think of a response.Avoid asking about pay during a job interview, it can make you seem solely concerned with money
17Job Interview After the interview you should: Thank the interviewer for taking the time to speak with you.Follow about a week later to see if they have come to a decisionSend a thank you card or letter to the interviewer, even if you didn’t get the job
18Other things on the test Editing skills (you will need to find and correct ten mistakes in a passage of text)Basic reading comprehension of The Curious Incident of the Dog in the NighttimeReading inference skillsWriting