# P.V. PANEL WIND LOAD EFFECTS N OVEMBER 2010 Arman Hemmati, Brady Zaiser, Chaneel Park, Jeff Symons, Katie Olver Class Presentation #1.

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P.V. PANEL WIND LOAD EFFECTS N OVEMBER 2010 Arman Hemmati, Brady Zaiser, Chaneel Park, Jeff Symons, Katie Olver Class Presentation #1

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Overview Introduction (Katie) Wind Tunnel Tests (Chaneel) Computational Analysis (Arman) What’s Next (Arman) 1

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Introduction – ENMAX Frames 2 Renusol ConSole   DIY Frame

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Introduction – Problem 3 Most efficient sun capture at 51° Higher angle means greater aerodynamic forces More ballast required to hold the panel down Too much weight for the roof? Want to better understand wind loads on PV panels: ▫Wind Tunnel Testing ▫Computational (CFD) Analysis

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Wind Tunnel – Model Scaling/Building 4 1.Constructing a suitable model (6 linear panel array) ▫The size of the model must correspond to the dimensions of the wind tunnel ▫What material should be used as a PV panel substitute ▫Require a base frame for the model to rest upon 2.Methods for analyzing the force on the panel ▫Force Receiving Base ▫Pressure Distribution is not a concern ▫Force transducers or load cells considered (although potentially expensive)

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Wind Tunnel – Testing (conceptual) 5 1.Height of the panel from the roof (Frame Bottom Opening) ▫Least Loads: Test the model at various heights 2.Variation of wind speed ▫Wind Speed Effect: The relationship between wind speed, drag/lift forces, and additional load on the roof 3.Wind angle of attack ▫Flexible Model: The model is angled to represent varying wind angle of attack ▫Methods for model force Analysis

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC 6 Computational – 2D vs. 3D Modeling Courtesy of COMSOL Multiphysics 1.Two-Dimensional (2D) Models ▫Easier to develop, evaluate, and understand ▫Typically the start of an analysis ▫Provides a general overview to the forces expected in the wind tunnel 2.Three-Dimensional (3D) Models ▫More Difficult to set-up, and develop ▫More powerful computers required ▫More realistic model of the actual phenomena ▫Typically used to compare to the wind tunnel testing

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC What’s Next – Conclusion 7 1.Current Stage in the Design Process ▫Direction is set, details required 2.Plan on Wind Tunnel Test ▫Model design details ▫Method of measurement: Literature research 3.Plan on CFD ▫Program and computer availability ▫Starting with a 2D Model 4.Revised Frame Design ▫Only if current design fails

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC References Renusol ConSole Manual 9/2009 COMSOL Multiphysics Website ANSYS Website 8

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC www.ucalgary.ca/deloprec

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