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Professional Seminar November 13, 2002 Learning ASSESSMENT Basics & Paradoxes Gronlund, N. 1998, The Assessment of Student Acheivement
© E. Kowch ProSem Agenda 1.Three Stages of Instruction/ Assessment Decisions: Beginning - Readiness and Placement Assessment Middle - Formative evlauation End - Summative evaluation 2.The Nature of Student Assessment 1. Performance Assessment 2. Testing Normative Criteria Based
© E. Kowch ProSem
© E. Kowch ProSem The Montana Math (2002) Standardized Test Results.pdf file
© E. Kowch ProSem The Calgary Board of Education Standardized Test Results : Grades 3, 6, 9 & 12 (Alberta Learning Exams)
© E. Kowch ProSem
© E. Kowch ProSem Mini Lesson One: Placement, Formative and Summative Assessment Learning Objectives: – The student will be able to: (TSWBAT): – State a definition of placement assessment and Give an example for their own practice – State a definition of formative assessment and Give an example for their own practice – State a definition of Summative assessment and Give an example for their own practice – Distinguish among the various roles of assessment in the 3 different instructional processes mentioned.
© E. Kowch ProSem Some Terms.. Performance Assessment – Requires students to demonstrate their achievement of understandings and skills by actually performing tasks (story writing, speaking, operating a machine). Alternative Assessment – Performance assessments that emphasizes that we provide alternatives to traditional paper-and-pencil assessments – Include “real world” contextual settings
© E. Kowch ProSem Some Types of Assessments Achievement – Test the extent to which a student is achieving the intended learning outcomes Aptitude – Test the student’s preference for certain learning situations.
© E. Kowch ProSem Comparing Instruction to Assessment 1.Creates clearly defined learning outcomes 2.Uses methods and materials congruent with the learning outcomes to be achieved 3.Fits the characteristics and needs of the students 4.Decisions are based on info. That is meaningful, dependable and relevant 5.Students are periodically informed about their learning progress 6. Remediation is provided for students not meeting the learning objectives 1.Assesses the clearly defined learning outcomes 2.Is congruent with the methods and materials of instruction 3. Fits the relevant student characteristics, fairly to all 4. Provides info. That is meaningful, dependable and relevant. 5. Early feedback helps learners adjust and achieve 6. Specific learning weaknesses are revealed Instruction:Assessment:
© E. Kowch ProSem Assessment Decision Making: 3 Stages 1.At the beginning of instruction 2.During instruction 3.At the end of instruction
© E. Kowch ProSem Assessment at the Beginning of Instruction Ask yourself, as teacher: 1. THE READINESS QUESTION To what extent do the students already possess the skills and abilities that we need to begin instruction? 2.THE PLACEMENT QUESTION To what extent have the students already achieved the intended learning outcomes of the planned instruction? (could you ask this at the end of instruction? Why?) Beginning
© E. Kowch ProSem Activity One: In Groups of Two, (grade-alike), create: – 1. One readiness question for each of 3 subjects you will teach (be sure to state the grade level) (be sure to state the skill that you are looking for in each question: Example: Skill Assessed: Readiness Question 1.TSWBAT Add single digit numbers Show me what “Adding” means. – 2. One placement question for each of 3 subjects you will teach (be sure to state the grade level). (be sure to state the intended learning outcome for each question: Example: Learning Outcome: Placement Question 1.TSWBAT wash hands after recessWhat do you do right after recess I is over?
© E. Kowch ProSem Placement Assessment (to determine entry performance) Readiness Concern Do the students have the Prerequisite skills? Beginning no yes Provide readiness experiences Proceed with The instruction Placement Concern Have the students already Achieved the intended Outcomes? Advance Students To a higher level no yes Discuss: Math vs. Social Studies (criterion?)
© E. Kowch ProSem During Instruction: Formative and Diagnostic Assessment During Instruction During Instruction, ask yourself as teacher: 1. On which learning tasks are the students progressing satisfactorily? On which learning tasks do the students need help? Formative assessments: measure student mastery by measuring The intended outcomes of the UNIT of instruction Using the results to improve learning (not give grades, necessarily) May involve assessment of a product - writing, portfolios, videos,art, music, welding,speech. 2. Which students are having such sever learning problems that they need remedial work? Diagnostic assessments: Focus on a common source of error for students in a learning process. Tests with slight variations between them that indicate where the student’s learning is a problem for them. 1.For example, you would ask yourself: 2.Are students having trouble adding because they don’t know certain number combinations, or because they can’t carry a number? 3.Are students struggling with German because of inadequate vocabulary or because they do not grasp the elements of grammar?
© E. Kowch ProSem The instructional role of Formative Assessment (to monitor learning progress) Provide Group or Individual remediation no yes DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT (to study persistent difficulties Provide feedback to reinforce learning Proceed with The planned instruction Discuss During Instruction Are the students achieving the intended Learning outcomes?
© E. Kowch ProSem Assessment at the End of Instruction Ask yourself, as teacher: 1. Which students have mastered the learning tasks to such a degree that they should proceed to the next course or unit of instruction? 2. What grade should be assigned to each student? Summative Assessment: Occurs at the end of instruction for the purpose of certifying mastery or assigning grades. - Is also part of the course redesign. End
© E. Kowch ProSem Summative Assessment (to monitor learning progress) Provide additional learning experiences no yes Assign grades to certify mastery Discuss Have the students achieved The intended outcomes Of instruction? End Evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction
© E. Kowch ProSem Other ways that assessments can aid learning 1.Motivation: 1. Provides students with short term goals 2. Clarifies the types of tasks to be learned 3. Provide feedback concerning their learning progress 2.Retention and Transfer of learning 1. Because tasks are focused and repeat to mastery (sometimes) 3.Student Self Assessment 1. Self image and student’s value of the learning process can occur if the student internalizes learning outcome achievements. 4.Evaluating Instructional Effectiveness 1. Determine the extent to which learning objectives are realistic 2. Determine the extent to which instruction is appropriate 3. Determine the extent to which students have the prerequisite learning for the event design
© E. Kowch ProSem Mini Lesson One Assessment: Placement, Formative and Summative Assessment Learning Objectives: – The student will be able to: (TSWBAT): – State a definition of placement assessment and Give an example for their own practice – State a definition of formative assessment and Give an example for their own practice – State a definition of Summative assessment and Give an example for their own practice – Distinguish among the various roles of assessment in the 3 different instructional processes mentioned.
© E. Kowch ProSem The Nature of Student Assessment Two assessment methods are presented: 1.Performance Assessment 2.Testing `
© E. Kowch ProSem Testing – 1. Testing (of knowledge) Type 1: Selected Response: Multiple choice True and false Matching Benefits: fast administration time -easy to score -easy to report the findings (#s) Drawbacks: 80-90% focus on knowledge (facts) -tend not to be on realistic situations (if we aren’t careful) -depend heavily on language skills of the student Type 2: Supply Response Word response Short Phrase Essay Answer
© E. Kowch ProSem Performance Assessment 2. Performance Assessment ( of skills or behavior) Type 1: Restricted Performance Performance of a limited task that is highly structured such as: - selecting equipment, high jump. Type 2: Extended Performance Performance of more complex and less structured tasks such as: - writing a paragraph on the topic, writing a short story, writing a journal, doing a web site :-) - requires student to integrate and apply knowledge and skills in a realistic setting. Students may have to do more than create a product - they might have to review and revise the product themselves.
© E. Kowch ProSem Some info about learner (assessment) tasks Realism: the extent to which the test simulates the real world. Complexity: low cplxty = Yes/No. High = compare/contrast or drive Assessment time needed for the task: Selected response tests are FAST…. Essays are SLOW Judgment in Scoring: – Higher subjectivity = higher demand on teacher judgment. – Criteria for quality performance helps the teacher and the student at times: Set a rating scale for each criteria Or set a rubric up – Problems? What if creativity in the learner gives you a product so far outside your criteria that you can’t use the criteria?
© E. Kowch ProSem Assessment Methods LowHigh Low HighLow High LowHigh Realism of Tasks Complexity of Tasks Assessment Time Needed Judgment in Scoring Testing Performance Assessment Selected Response Supply Response Restricted Performance Extended Performance
© E. Kowch ProSem Guidelines for Effective Student Assessment 1.Have a clear idea of all intended learning outcomes 2.Use a variety of assessment procedures 3.Use relevant instructional procedures 4.Get an adequate sample of student performance 5.Procedures must be fair to all learners 6.Specify the criteria for successful performance 7.Provide learner feedback showing performance strength and weaknesses. Good feedback should: 1. Give such feedback right away 2. Give detailed and understandable feedback 3. Focus on the successful elements AND the improvement areas 4. Provide remedial suggestions to correct mistakes 5. Be positive and provide a guide fo improving both performance and self assessment. 8.Use a good grading and reporting system (to communicate results)
© E. Kowch ProSem Validity and Reliability of Assessments Validity: Validity: the appropriateness and meaningfulness of the inferences we make from assessment results for some intended use. Validity is easiest to accomplish in performance testing. Reliability: Reliability: can this assessment result be duplicated with confidence? (consistency).
Norm Referenced Assessment & Criterion Referenced Assessment A brief Overview
© E. Kowch ProSem Recall: The “one” and the “many”
© E. Kowch ProSem The Distribution Curve: Defining Normal Norm
© E. Kowch ProSem The Distribution Curve: Defining Normal Norm
© E. Kowch ProSem Normative Achievement testing can provide: A relative ranking of students A description of the learning tasks a student cannot do A description of the learning tasks a student can do Criticism: “I had spent much of my professional life criticizing standardized tests. I knew that they were biased in hundreds of important ways, that they measured the narrowest band of cognition, and that they did even that crudely” (Ayers, 2001, p. 109)
© E. Kowch ProSem Criterion Referenced Interpretation Mastery testing: Learning is evaluated compared to a standard that is set. The evaluation is about the degree of achievement of the student, not about a comparison to the achievement of the group. Carla is capable of using correct paragraph form with a high degree of mastery, doing this 8 out of 10 times. The determination of what tasks students can and can not perform. Carla uses incorrect paragraph form when she writes narrative paragraphs. An evaluation of the instruction can occur as well. More instruction is required where students get to practice writing the narrative paragraph. Criterion
© E. Kowch ProSem Criterion Referenced Interpretation: Including and extending beyond Norm Ref & Critieria Referencing Projects Portfolios Performance A more constructivist approach: Internal Assessment – Regular oral reports – Enactments – Constructions Allows for affective domain evaluation - “the whole child”; can get feedback on creativity, imagination, conceptual thinking, commitment & social interaction
© E. Kowch ProSem Recall: The “one” and the “many” Am I assessing for the student? For the teachers? For myself? For the class? For parents? For administration? For the principal? For better Instruction? ….
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