# P.V. PANEL WIND LOAD EFFECTS N OVEMBER 2010 Arman Hemmati, Brady Zaiser, Chaneel Park, Jeff Symons, Katie Olver Design Review #1.

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P.V. PANEL WIND LOAD EFFECTS N OVEMBER 2010 Arman Hemmati, Brady Zaiser, Chaneel Park, Jeff Symons, Katie Olver Design Review #1

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Overview Introduction (Katie) Objectives (Brady) Wind Tunnel Tests (Jeff) Computational Analysis (Arman) What’s Next (Chaneel) 1

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Introduction - DIY Frames at ENMAX 2

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Introduction – Renusol ConSole 3 - Plastic Mounting System

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Introduction – Problem 4 Most efficient sun capture at 51° Higher angle means greater aerodynamic forces More ballast required to hold the panel down Too much weight for the roof? Want to better understand wind loads on PV panels: ▫Wind Tunnel Testing ▫Computational (CFD) Analysis

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Objectives – Project Overview 5 1.Determine amount of ballast required 1.Determine downward force induced by wind ▫Total load on roof is sum of 1. and 2. 2.Determine total load for two different frames ▫How to minimize load?

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Objectives – Functional Requirements 6 1.Effect of Wind Speed ▫Proportional, or…? 2.Effect of Panel Tilt ▫Preferred angle is 51° 3.Effect of Wind Direction ▫Front or back 4.Proximity of Panel to the Ground ▫Should reduce drag to a point 5.Repeat for Second Frame Design

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Wind Tunnel – Facility Specifications 7 Environmental Wind Tunnel ▫Located in Engineering Building Size and dimensions of the Wind Tunnel ▫Required to correctly design the scaled down model Full capability of the Wind Tunnel ▫Necessary to determine the reasonable testing wind speed.

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Wind Tunnel – Model Scaling/Building 8 1.Constructing a suitable model (6 linear panel array) ▫The size of the model must correspond to the dimensions of the wind tunnel ▫What material should be used as a PV panel substitute ▫Require a base frame for the model to rest upon 2.Methods for analyzing the force on the panel ▫Force Receiving Base ▫Pressure Distribution is not a concern ▫Force transducers or load cells considered (although potentially expensive)

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Wind Tunnel – Testing (conceptual) 9 1.Height of the panel from the roof (Frame Bottom Opening) ▫Least Loads: Test the model at various heights 2.Variation of wind speed ▫Wind Speed Effect: The relationship between wind speed, drag/lift forces, and additional load on the roof 3.Wind angle of attack ▫Flexible Model: The model is angled to represent varying wind angle of attack ▫Methods for model force Analysis

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC Computational – Software Packages 10 ANSYS CFX ▫Employing Finite Element Method (FEM) ▫Best in Single Physics Modeling ▫Mostly used for modeling of Solids ▫University of Calgary Licensing Comsol Multiphysics ▫Works on basis of FEM ▫Multi-physical modeling ▫Best suited for modeling of Fluids, Stationary Solids ▫Shell Canada Licensing

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC 11 Computational – 2D vs. 3D Modeling Courtesy of COMSOL Multiphysics 1.Two-Dimensional (2D) Models ▫Easier to develop, evaluate, and understand ▫Typically the start of an analysis ▫Provides a general overview to the forces expected in the wind tunnel 2.Three-Dimensional (3D) Models ▫More Difficult to set-up, and develop ▫More powerful computers required ▫More realistic model of the actual phenomena ▫Typically used to compare to the wind tunnel testing

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC What’s Next – Conclusion 12 1.Current Stage in the Design Process ▫Direction is set, details required 2.Plan on Wind Tunnel Test ▫Model design details ▫Method of measurement: Literature research 3.Plan on CFD ▫Program and computer availability ▫Importing CAD model 4.Revised Frame Design ▫Only if current design fails

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC References Renusol ConSole Manual 9/2009 COMSOL Multiphysics Website ANSYS Website 13

NOVEMBER - 2010Design Review #1: DeLoPREC www.ucalgary.ca/deloprec

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