Presentation on theme: "Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time."— Presentation transcript:
Table of Contents – pages iii Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: EcologyEcology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit 9: Vertebrates Unit 10: The Human Body
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 1: What is Biology? Chapter 1: Biology: The Study of Life Unit 2: EcologyEcology Chapter 2: Principles of Ecology Chapter 3: Communities and Biomes Chapter 4: Population Biology Chapter 5: Biological Diversity and ConservationBiological Diversity and Conservation Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Chapter 6: The Chemistry of Life Chapter 7: A View of the Cell Chapter 8: Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle Chapter 9: Energy in a Cell
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 4: Genetics Chapter 10: Mendel and Meiosis Chapter 11: DNA and Genes Chapter 12: Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Chapter 13: Genetic Technology Unit 5: Change Through Time Chapter 14: The History of Life Chapter 15: The Theory of Evolution Chapter 16: Primate Evolution Chapter 17: Organizing Lifes Diversity
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Chapter 18: Viruses and Bacteria Chapter 19: Protists Chapter 20: Fungi Unit 7: Plants Chapter 21: What Is a Plant? Chapter 22: The Diversity of Plants Chapter 23: Plant Structure and Function Chapter 24: Reproduction in Plants
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 8: Invertebrates Chapter 25: What Is an Animal? Chapter 26: Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, and Roundworms Chapter 27: Mollusks and Segmented Worms Chapter 28: Arthropods Chapter 29: Echinoderms and Invertebrate Chordates
Table of Contents – pages vii-xiii Unit 9: Vertebrates Chapter 30: Fishes and Amphibians Chapter 31: Reptiles and Birds Chapter 32: Mammals Chapter 33: Animal Behavior Unit 10: The Human Body Chapter 34: Protection, Support, and Locomotion Chapter 35: The Digestive and Endocrine Systems Chapter 36: The Nervous System Chapter 37: Respiration, Circulation, and Excretion Chapter 38: Reproduction and Development Chapter 39: Immunity from Disease
Unit Overview – pages Ecology Principles of Ecology Communities and Biomes Population Biology Biological Diversity and Conservation
Chapter Contents – page vii Chapter 5 Biological Diversity and ConservationBiological Diversity and Conservation 5.1: Vanishing SpeciesVanishing Species 5.1: Section CheckSection Check 5.2: Conservation of BiodiversityConservation of Biodiversity 5.2: Section CheckSection Check Chapter 5 SummarySummary Chapter 5 AssessmentAssessment
Chapter Intro-page 110 What Youll Learn You will explain the importance of biological diversity. You will distinguish environmental changes that may result in the loss of species. You will describe the work of conservation biologists.
5.1 Section Objectives – page 111 Explain biodiversity and its importance. Section Objectives: Relate various threats to the loss of biodiversity.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Biodiversity refers to the variety of species in a specific area. The simplest and most common measure of biodiversity is the number of different species that live in a certain area. Biological Diversity
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Areas around the world differ in biodiversity. Biodiversity increases as you move toward the equator. Where is biodiversity found?
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Where is biodiversity found? Tropical regions contain two-thirds of all land species on Earth.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages The richest environments for biodiversity all seem to be warm places: tropical rain forests, coral reefs, and large tropical lakes. Where is biodiversity found?
Section 5.1 Summary – pages How do ecologists perform experiments related to biodiversity? Today you can read about projects in rain forests that require scientists to live 150 meters up in the canopy for weeks while they collect species that live only at that level. Studying biodiversity
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Other researchers catalogue the organisms that live in coral reefs and others attach radio collars to sea turtles. Studying biodiversity
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Studying biodiversity Still others work in laboratories comparing the DNA of members of isolated populations to see how or if these populations might be changing.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Importance to nature Living things are interdependent. Living things can be niches for other living things. Populations are adapted to live together in communities.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Importance to nature Scientists do know that if a species is lost from an ecosystem, the loss may have consequences for other living things in the area.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Biodiversity brings stability Biodiversity can bring stability to an ecosystem. A pest could easily destroy all the corn in a farmers field, but it would be far more difficult for a single type of insect or disease to destroy all individuals of a plant species in a rain forest. Ecosystems are stable if their biodiversity is maintained.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Importance to people Humans depend on other organisms for their needs. Yet only a few species of plants and animals supply the major portion of the food eaten by the human population. Biodiversity could help breeders produce additional food crops.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Importance to people Another important reason for maintaining biodiversity is that it can be used to improve peoples health. Living things supply the world pharmacy. Penicillium
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Importance to people Preserving biodiversity ensures there will be a supply of living things, some of which may provide future drugs. Penicillium
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Loss of Biodiversity Extinction is the disappearance of a species when the last of its members dies. Extinction is a natural process and Earth has experienced several mass extinctions during its history.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Loss of Biodiversity Scientists estimate that background extinction accounts for the loss of one to ten species per year. However, the current rate of extinction exceeds that by many times. There is also a certain level of natural extinction, called background extinction, that goes on.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Loss of Biodiversity A species is considered to be an endangered species when its numbers become so low that extinction is possible.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages When the population of a species is likely to become endangered, it is said to be a threatened species. Loss of Biodiversity
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Complex interactions among species make each ecosystem unique. Changes to habitats can therefore threaten organisms with extinction. Threats to Biodiversity
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Habitat loss One of the biggest reasons for decline in biodiversity is habitat loss.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Habitat fragmentation Habitat fragmentation is the separation of wilderness areas from other wilderness areas.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Habitat fragmentation Habitat fragmentation has been found to contribute to: increased extinction of local species. changes in overall biodiversity. disruption of ecological processes. new opportunities for invasions by unwanted or exotic species. increased risk of fire.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Habitat fragmentation The smaller the fragment, the less biodiversity the area can support. Geographic isolation can lead to genetic isolation. Habitat fragmentation also makes it difficult for species to reestablish themselves in an area.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Edge and size The edge of a habitat or ecosystem is where one habitat or ecosystem meets another.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages The different conditions along the boundaries of an ecosystem are called edge effects. Different organisms might live along the edge of a forest instead of in the interior of the forest. Edge and size
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Edge and size If a road is cut through a wooded area, the shape of the wooded area changes and the edge is changed. Now there is less distance between the edge and the interior. Some plants might die out.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages When an edge changes, animals might migrate because there isnt enough space from which to gather food. As a result, biodiversity of that area changes. Edge and size
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Another threat to biodiversity is habitat degradation, the damage to a habitat by pollution. Three types of pollution are air, water, and land pollution. Habitat degradation
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Pollutants enter the atmosphere in many waysincluding volcanic eruptions and forest fires. Habitat degradation
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Habitat degradation Burning fossil fuels is also a major source of air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide. Acid precipitationrain, snow, sleet, and fog with low pH valueshas been linked to the deterioration of some forests and lakes.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Habitat degradation Ultraviolet waves emitted by the Sun also can cause damage to living organisms. Ozone, a compound consisting of three oxygen atoms, is found mainly in a region of Earths atmosphere between about 15 km and 35 km altitude.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Habitat degradation The ozone in this regionknown as the ozone layer absorbs some of the ultraviolet waves striking the atmosphere, reducing the ultraviolet radiation reaching Earths surface. Click image to view movie.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Water pollution Water pollution degrades aquatic habitats in streams, rivers, lakes, and oceans. A variety of pollutants can affect aquatic life.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Water pollution Excess fertilizers and animal wastes are often carried by rain into streams and lakes. The sudden availability of nutrients causes algal blooms, the excessive growth of algae.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Detergents, heavy metals, and industrial chemicals in runoff can cause death in aquatic organisms. Abandoned drift nets in oceans have been known to entangle and kill dolphins, whales, and other sea life. Water pollution
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Land pollution Trash, or solid waste, is made up of the cans, bottles, paper, plastic, metals, dirt, and spoiled food that people throw away every day.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Land pollution Recycling Click image to view movie.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Land pollution The average American produces about 1.8 kg of solid waste daily. Thats a total of about 657 kg of waste per person per year. Although some of it might decompose quickly, most trash becomes part of the billions of tons of solid waste that are buried in landfills.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Land pollution The use of pesticides and other chemicals can also lead to habitat degradation.
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Exotic species People sometimes introduce a new species into an ecosystem, either intentionally or unintentionally. These species can cause problems for the native species. Kudzu
Section 5.1 Summary – pages Exotic species When exotic species are introduced, these species can grow at an exponential rate due to the fact that they are not immediately as vulnerable to local competitors or predators as are the established native species.
Section 1 Check Question 1 The term that refers to the variety of species in a specific area is _________. D. endangered species C. biodiversity B. conservation biology A. ecology
Section 1 Check The answer is C. The simplest measure of biodiversity is the number of different species that live in a certain area.
Section 1 Check Question 2 Describe the possible effect on a biological community of removing one species.
Section 1 Check Because living things are interdependent, removing a single species from a community can remove a food source or otherwise break symbiotic relationships causing remaining organisms to suffer. This decreases the stability of the ecosystem.
Section 1 Check Question 3 When the population of a species begins to significantly decline in numbers, it is __________. D. diverse C. fragmented B. extinct A. threatened
Section 1 Check The answer is A. When the population of a species is declining and likely to become endangered, it is said to be a threatened species. Listing status Current Range African elephant MammalsT Africa *U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Threatened and Endangered Species System (TESS) Through the Fish and Wildlife Service, information is available to the public on all species threatened or endangered T, under Listing Status, refers to threatened. An E would indicate endangered. Group Common Name Scientific Name Loxodonta africana Results of Species Search*
5.2 Section Objectives – page 121 Section Objectives Relate success in protecting an endangered species to the methods used to protect it. Describe strategies used in conservation biology.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Conservation biology is the study and implementation of methods to protect biodiversity. Conservation Biology Effective conservation strategies are based on principles of ecology.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Natural resources are those parts of the environment that are useful or necessary for living organisms. Conservation Biology Natural resources include sunlight, water, air, and plant and animal resources.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages In response to concern about species extinction, the U.S. Endangered Species Act became law in Legal protections of species This law made it illegal to harm any species on the endangered or threatened species lists.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages A habitat is the physical location where an organism lives and interacts with its environment. Preserving habitats
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Preserving habitats One way that habitats have been protected is through the creation of natural preserves and parks.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Establishing parks and other protected regions has been an effective way to preserve ecosystems and the communities of species that live in them. Preserving habitats Saguaro National Park, Arizona
Section 5.2 Summary – pages A general strategy for protecting the biodiversity of an area probably is to protect the largest area possible. However, research is showing that keeping wildlife populations completely separate from one another may be resulting in inbreeding within populations. Habitat corridors
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Therefore, another strategy for preserving biodiversity is to connect protected areas with habitat corridors. Habitat corridors
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Habitat corridors Habitat corridors are protected strips of land that allow the migration of organisms from one wilderness area to another.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Parks and protected areas usually hire people, such as rangers, to manage the parks and ensure the protection of organisms. Working with people
Section 5.2 Summary – pages The philosophy of sustainable use strives to enable people to use natural resources in ways that will benefit them and maintain the ecosystem. Working with people
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Reintroduction programs release organisms into an area where the species once lived. Reintroduction and species preservation programs Reintroduction and species preservation programs The most successful reintroductions occur when organisms are taken from an area in the wild and transported to a new suitable habitat.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Some species no longer exist in the wild, but a small number of individual organisms is maintained by humans. Captivity An organism that is held by people is said to be in captivity.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages The ideal way to protect a plant species is to allow it to exist in a natural ecosystem. Protecting plant species But seeds can be cooled and stored for long periods of time. By establishing seed banks for threatened and endangered plants, the species can be reintroduced if they become extinct.
Section 5.2 Summary – pages Reintroductions of captive animals are more difficult than for plants. Animals kept in captivity may lose the necessary behaviors to survive and reproduce in the wild. Protecting plant species
Section 2 Check Which of the following is a natural resource? Question 1 D. species reintroduction C. acid precipitation B. air A. habitat fencing
Section 2 Check The answer is B. Natural resources are parts of the environment that are useful to living organisms. Human activities and consumption of natural resources can have a negative effect on Earth's ecosystem.
Section 2 Check Which of the following is a habitat corridor? Question 2 D. walking trail leading from a nature center to a parking lot C. fenced off panther crossing near a highway B. chipmunk tunnel in a homeowner's yard A. squirrel nest left untouched by a tree trimmer
Section 2 Check The answer is C. Habitat corridors are protected and allow movement from one wilderness area to another.
Section 2 Check Why are reintroduction programs more difficult to complete for animals than for plants? Question 3
Section 2 Check Keeping animals in captivity before reintroduction is expensive. They require space, care, and proper food. The animals may lose those behaviors needed for survival and reproduction in the wild.
Chapter Summary – 5.1 Biodiversity refers to the variety of life in an area. Vanishing Species The most common measure of biodiversity is the number of species in an area. Maintaining biodiversity is important because if a species is lost from an ecosystem, the loss may have consequences for other species in the same area, including humans.
Chapter Summary – 5.1 Extinctions occur when the last members of species die. Habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation have accelerated the rate of extinctions. Exotic species, introduced on purpose or by accident, upset the normal ecological balance in a given area because there are no natural competitors or predators in that area to keep their growth in check. Vanishing Species
Chapter Summary – 5.2 Conservation biology is the study and implementation of methods to preserve Earths biodiversity. Conservation of Biodiversity In 1973, the Endangered Species Act was signed into law in response to concerns about species extinction. The law protects species on the endangered and threatened species lists in an effort to prevent their extinction.
Chapter Summary – 5.2 Larger protected areas generally have greater biodiversity than smaller protected areas. Animal reintroduction programs have been more successful when the reintroduced organisms come from the wild rather than from captivity. Conservation of Biodiversity
Chapter Assessment Question 1 Sustainable use benefits __________ in a particular ecosystem. D. all of the above C. habitats B. threatened species A. people who reside
The answer is D. The philosophy of sustainable use enables people to use natural resources in ways that will benefit them and yet maintain the ecosystem. Chapter Assessment
Question 2 Separation of wilderness into smaller parts is habitat __________. D. degradation C. corridor B. fragmentation A. diversity
The answer is B. Habitat fragmentation occurs when wilderness areas are separated from other wilderness areas. It has been found to contribute to changes in overall biodiversity and disruption of ecological processes. Chapter Assessment
Question 3 Which of the following is an example of habitat fragmentation? D. unintentional introduction of Zebra mussels into the Great Lakes C. fertilizer in runoff polluting streams B. acid precipitation causing tree damage A. a new road constructed through a forest to connect its edges
The answer is A. Habitat fragmentation results in areas of wilderness being separated from other wilderness areas. Pollution causes habitat degradation. Chapter Assessment
Question 4 Describe the difference between an endangered species and a threatened species.
An endangered species is one whose numbers are so low extinction is possible. A threatened species is one that is likely to become endangered. Endangered Extinct Chapter Assessment
Question 5 The release of captive organisms into areas where they once lived is species __________. D. conservation C. reintroduction B. degradation A. fragmentation
The answer is C. Reintroduction Chapter Assessment
Question 6 What do acid precipitation and excess fertilizer in runoff have in common?
Both can cause habitat degradation. Acid precipitation resulting from air pollution can leach nutrients from soil as well as damage plant tissues. Excess fertilizer in runoff is water pollution and can cause death in aquatic organisms. Chapter Assessment
Question 7 A study of the biodiversity of a group of islands is conducted in which all existing species except for trees are removed. Which island is most likely to be recolonized first? D. the island that is 10 km from the mainland C. the island that is 2 km from the mainland B. the island that is 1000 m from the mainland A. the island that is 100 m from the mainland
The answer is A. In a similar experiment conducted in the 1960s, scientists observed that the farther away the island was from the mainland, the longer it took for the island to be recolonized. Chapter Assessment
Photo Credits Columbus Zoo Corbis Digital Stock National Park Service Ohio Department of Natural Resources PhotoDisc Pfizer Inc. Alton Biggs Photo Credits
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