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The Muslim World Expands Chapter 18.

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1 The Muslim World Expands Chapter 18








9 Section 1-The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire

10 The Turks Move into Byzantium GhazisGhazis-Anatolian Turks that saw themselves as warriors for Islam OttomansOttomans-Followers of Osman the most successful ghazi gun powder –Military Success based on gun powder cannons –Some of the 1 st people to use cannons

11 The Turks Move into Byzantium SultanSultan-Meaning ‘overlord’ or “one with power” Living under the Ottomans local officials –Used local officials appointed by the sultan to rule conquered areas –Muslims –Muslims served in the Turkish army and pay religious taxes tax –Non-Muslims did not have to serve in the army but paid a small tax in return

12 The Turks Move into Byzantium Timur the Lame- –Received the nickname after taking an arrow to the leg Baghdad –Burned Baghdad to the ground Ottomans –Crushed the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara (1402)

13 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion Mehmed II- Mehmed the Conqueror –Nicknamed Mehmed the Conqueror Constantinople –Attacked Constantinople Fired a 1,200lb bolder out of a 26-foot gun and ships Istanbul After conquering the city he renamed it Istanbul opened it up to Christians, Jews, Muslims, Turks and non- Turks

14 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion Suleyman the Lawgiver- –Ruled for 46 years bureaucratic –Created penalties for various criminal acts, bureaucratic and financial corruption balanced budget –Also introduced the concept of a balanced budget to governments

15 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion Suleyman the Lawgiver- mathematics –Studied poetry, history, geography, astronomy, mathematics and architecture tolerant –Because of Islamic law he was tolerant of other religions literature –Supported art and literature

16 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion ChristianDevshirme System-Members of the sultan’s army drafted from the Christian boys of conquered territories. –Converted educated –Converted to Islam, and educated them the sultanJanissaries-Elite force of 30,000 soldiers trained to be loyal only to the sultan.

17 Section 3-The Mughal Empire in India


19 Early History of the Mughals MongolsMughals-Means Mongols nomadic –Group of nomadic invaders in Central Asia Babur1494-Babur inherits the kingdoms of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan at the age of 11 Mughal Empire –Swept down into India and laid the foundations for the Mughal Empire

20 Early History of the Mughals Akbar-Ruled India from 1556 to 1605 grandson –Babur’s grandson tolerance –Ruled with wisdom and tolerance Divine Faith –Created his own religion the “Divine Faith” revoltHe offended Muslims so much that they tried to revolt against him in 1581

21 Early History of the Mughals Art and Literature- –Illustrated books –Illustrated books flourished MiniaturesMiniatures-Small highly detailed, colorful paintings –Hindu literature –Hindu literature also saw a resurgence during Akbar’s time

22 Akbar’s Successors Shah Jahan- –Killed –Killed anyone who got in his way of being king –Had two great passions in life: buildingsBeautiful buildings His wife Mumtaz Mahal –Sadly she died at age 39 while giving birth to their 14 th child

23 Akbar’s Successors Taj Mahal- Mumtaz MahalTaj Mahal- Towering marble dome built as a memorial to Mumtaz Mahal following her death most beautiful building –Referred to as the most beautiful building in the world


25 Akbar’s Successors Aurangzeb- Shah Jahan’s 3 rd son –Took power when Shah became sick greatest size –Expanded the Mughal Empire to it’s greatest size –Oppressed the people shariaStrict Islamic law (sharia) banned gambling, drinking, and other vices non-Muslims HindusTaxed non-Muslims and was cruel to Hindus

26 The Empire’s Decline and Decay Reasons for the Empire’s Decline- –Aurangzeb had drained it’s resources hunger –2 million people died of hunger local lords –As central power weakened the power of local lords grew western traders –The power of western traders began to increase


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