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The Muslim World Expands

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Presentation on theme: "The Muslim World Expands"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Muslim World Expands
Chapter 18








9 Section 1-The Ottomans Build a Vast Empire

10 The Turks Move into Byzantium
Ghazis-Anatolian Turks that saw themselves as warriors for Islam Ottomans-Followers of Osman the most successful ghazi Military Success based on gun powder Some of the 1st people to use cannons

11 The Turks Move into Byzantium
Sultan-Meaning ‘overlord’ or “one with power” Living under the Ottomans Used local officials appointed by the sultan to rule conquered areas Muslims served in the Turkish army and pay religious taxes Non-Muslims did not have to serve in the army but paid a small tax in return

12 The Turks Move into Byzantium
Timur the Lame- Received the nickname after taking an arrow to the leg Burned Baghdad to the ground Crushed the Ottomans in the Battle of Ankara (1402)

13 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion
Mehmed II- Nicknamed Mehmed the Conqueror Attacked Constantinople Fired a 1,200lb bolder out of a 26-foot gun and ships After conquering the city he renamed it Istanbul opened it up to Christians, Jews, Muslims, Turks and non-Turks

14 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion
Suleyman the Lawgiver- Ruled for 46 years Created penalties for various criminal acts, bureaucratic and financial corruption Also introduced the concept of a balanced budget to governments

15 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion
Suleyman the Lawgiver- Studied poetry, history, geography, astronomy, mathematics and architecture Because of Islamic law he was tolerant of other religions Supported art and literature

16 Powerful Sultans Spur Dramatic Expansion
Devshirme System-Members of the sultan’s army drafted from the Christian boys of conquered territories. Converted to Islam, and educated them Janissaries-Elite force of 30,000 soldiers trained to be loyal only to the sultan.

17 Section 3-The Mughal Empire in India


19 Early History of the Mughals
Mughals-Means Mongols Group of nomadic invaders in Central Asia 1494-Babur inherits the kingdoms of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan at the age of 11 Swept down into India and laid the foundations for the Mughal Empire

20 Early History of the Mughals
Akbar-Ruled India from 1556 to 1605 Babur’s grandson Ruled with wisdom and tolerance Created his own religion the “Divine Faith” He offended Muslims so much that they tried to revolt against him in 1581

21 Early History of the Mughals
Art and Literature- Illustrated books flourished Miniatures-Small highly detailed, colorful paintings Hindu literature also saw a resurgence during Akbar’s time

22 Akbar’s Successors Shah Jahan-
Killed anyone who got in his way of being king Had two great passions in life: Beautiful buildings His wife Mumtaz Mahal Sadly she died at age 39 while giving birth to their 14th child

23 Akbar’s Successors Taj Mahal- Towering marble dome built as a memorial to Mumtaz Mahal following her death Referred to as the most beautiful building in the world


25 Akbar’s Successors Aurangzeb- Shah Jahan’s 3rd son
Took power when Shah became sick Expanded the Mughal Empire to it’s greatest size Oppressed the people Strict Islamic law (sharia) banned gambling, drinking, and other vices Taxed non-Muslims and was cruel to Hindus

26 The Empire’s Decline and Decay
Reasons for the Empire’s Decline- Aurangzeb had drained it’s resources 2 million people died of hunger As central power weakened the power of local lords grew The power of western traders began to increase


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